The Chronological Development of Adjectives in –aya up to 725

Sebastian Brock Oriental Institute, Oxford University

Whereas early Syriac writers make only a restricted use of adjectives in –aya, in seventh-century authors large numbers are to be found. The present contribution aims to chart this development by providing an alphabetical listing of these forms and their attestation both in Syriac authors and in translations from Greek.

In a couple of earlier contributions I have indicated the potential interest of certain word formations, and in particular adjectival forms in –aya, as providing some useful criteria for dating undated texts.1 In the earlier of the two, my focus was primarily on the increasing use of certain word formations employing the suffixes –ana, -anuta, -ana’it, and adjectival forms in -aya only received mention at the end.2 With the collection of further materials, however, it became evident that these adjectival forms in –aya in fact provided much the best evidence for diachronic developments, and it was with these that the second study was exclusively concerned.

Anyone who is at all familiar with Syriac literature is likely to have observed that earlier Syriac texts are sparing in their use of adjectives, whereas later ones often have a profusion. Having now collected a large amount of material from texts both published and unpublished for the period up to AD 725, it seems possible to offer with a certain amount of confidence an outline of the development in the use of these adjectival forms, presented in the form of a basic alphabetical inventory of them in which, for each entry, an indication is given for the earliest attestation (the century is indicated by a Roman numeral), followed by (usually) single examples from later writers, in particular the poets Narsai, Jacob of Serugh and ‘Isaac of Antioch’, as well as the main prose writers of the fifth/sixth – early eighth century (the death of George of the Arab tribes in 724 and the dated (721) translation of Sophronios’ Letter to Arcadius have provided the cut-off date of 725). Since many adjectives in –aya will have first been introduced into usage through Syriac translations of Greek texts, considerable attention has been paid to those Greek authors who were clearly influential, above all Athanasius, Cyril of Alexandria, Gregory of Nazianzus, John Chrysostom and Theodore of Mopsuestia and Severus, the Syriac translation of several of whose works can be approximately dated. Since a considerable number of these Syriac translations have not yet been published, I have made use of the rich holdings of early Syriac manuscripts in the British Library which contain many of these unpublished translations. Even with such an extensive range of source materials from which the lexicon below is drawn, it is of course likely that future work on editing further texts will bring to light earlier and/or additional examples of these adjectival forms; accordingly the present contribution should be regarded as being only preliminary in character.

It is important to draw attention to two important features which the inventory does not address, namely frequency in any given author, and semantics. I hope to address the former in particular in some future studies; here, however, it is only for fourth-century texts that more than a single reference is given for each author.

Needless to say, for purposes of dating undated texts this inventory should not be used in isolation, but alongside a whole number of other criteria which are helpful for this purpose.3

The Sources Used

The materials upon which the inventory is based consist of:

(1) Peshitta Old and New Testaments.

(2) Writings earlier than c.400, thus predominantly Aphrahat, Ephrem and the Liber Graduum, for all of whom several references (where they exist) are given.

(3) All the published texts of Narsai (thus including those in the edition by the Patriarchal Press), likewise all the published texts of Jacob of Serugh, both prose and verse (including the 160 further memre published by Akhrass and Syryany), and the various works under the name of Isaac of Antioch published by Bickell and Bedjan; here it should be noted that a large number of works by ‘Isaac’ remain to be published.

(4) The main published prose writers of the fifth/sixth century, notably (and in roughly chronological order) John of Apamea, Philoxenus, Cyrus and Thomas of Edessa, Daniel of Salah, and John of Ephesus; and those of the sixth/seventh century, notably Barḥadbeshabba, Sahdona, Babai, Isho‘yahb III, Dadisho‘, Isaac of Nineveh, Jacob of Edessa, George of the Arab tribes. These are supplemented, primarily when they attest additional forms, by a number of other sources such as Gregory of Cyprus, John of the Sedre, Athanasius of Balad, the Synodicon Orientale, and others.

(5) Syriac translations, introduced by TR in the inventory, of the main influential Greek authors, as noted above. Several of these translations can be at least approximately dated, and in some cases exist in two versions, an earlier and a later one, usually a revision. Particularly important for the present purposes are those translations which can be approximately dated; details of these are given below under Dating. Since it appears that around the turn of the fifth/sixth century was the time when a number of important new adjective forms came into use, special attention is paid to the Canons of Nicaea and subsequent Synods, preserved in a manuscript dated 500/1, the original translations of Gregory of Nazianzus’ Discourses and of Severus’ Homilies, and polemical works against Julian of Halicarnassus.

(6) Since hagiographical texts are usually anonymous and for the most part difficult to date, these are only rarely cited (primarily when they provide witness for a rare entry).

It should be noted that, in the case of authors listed in (4) and (5), not all surviving works covered in my materials have been cited in the Inventory; thus, for example Basil’s on the Holy Spirit, Theodore of Mopsuestia’s Against the Macedonians, and the texts in W. Strothmann’s Johannes von Apamaea (1972), to mention only the most obvious, do not feature since they provide no further information beyond what is found in the other works of these authors which are cited.

Needless to say, the number of the adjectival forms in –aya continues to increase considerably after the cut-off date of 725; simply as a pointer in this direction I have included a limited selection of these drawn from liturgical texts, in particular anaphoras. These have the indication ‘post VII’.


Adjectives in –aya originated as adjectival forms of numbers (ordinals), and to denote ethnic origin. Both these categories are excluded, along with the points of the compass. Certain of these forms in –aya function primarily as nouns, and only rather rarely as adjectives; this applies to cases such as aksnaya, barbraya, iḥidaya, nukraya and ‘almaya (‘layman’); in the repertory below it is only instances of the adjectival use of such words that are included.

In unvocalized texts is it impossible to tell whether a feminine ending should be vocalized –ita (attached to words ending –ana, e.g. pagrana), or –ayta (thus belonging to an adjective ending –anaya). This ambiguity can remarkably be seen in Bedjan’s occasional vocalization shmayanayta (thus e.g. in his edition of Jacob of Serugh, v, 439), rather than shmayanita, the former being the feminine singular of shmayanaya, whereas the latter (certainly correct in this case) is from shmayana. Nevertheless one should note an isolated case of shmayanaya in Narsai: in his memra on Enoch and Elijah the phrase nasha shmayanaye occurs (ed. Frishman, I, 486), where the four-syllable form is required by (and perhaps was also occasioned by) the metre.

It also needs to be remembered that scribes may sometimes update earlier forms; a good example of this is Sirach 47:21, where 7a1 (and de Lagarde’s edition) has ḥanpayta, whereas the original reading was almost certainly ḥanpta (thus preserved in the Mosul edition). This form of updating may well also apply to the single apparent occurrence of ar‘anaya in Ephrem, H. de Ecclesia 49:2, where Beck’s text has ḥashe ar‘anaye; this, however, goes against the metre, which suggests that the original reading was ḥashe ar‘ane.

Approximately Datable Translations

Translators rarely get mentioned, and so the majority of translations are anonymous, and so not easy to date. Various criteria, however, are available, with the help of which an approximate date for a translation can be assigned. This is the case notably where:

(1) The rare cases where the date of the translation is given, or a firm terminus ante quem is available:

(a) Harklean and Syrohexapla.

(b) Severus, Against Julian of Halicarnassus. The trans-lation was made (or perhaps just commissioned) by Paul of Kallinikos in 528.

(c) PsDionysius; the corpus was translated by Sergius of Resh‘aina, who died in 536. Since only part of the corpus has been published, I have also made use of the single main witness, Sinai Syr. 52. The subsequent revision by Phokas of Edessa in the late seventh remains almost entirely unpublished, and it has only been used here for the section on the Myron in the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, edited by Strothmann.

(d) Paul, bishop of Edessa, was very active as both translator and reviser of earlier translations; at least some of this work was undertaken in 623/4 while he was in Cyprus, whither he had taken refuge from the Persian occupation.

(e) The dates for some of Jacob of Edessa’s translations/revisions are known.

(f) Constantine of Edessa translated Sophronius’ Letter to Arcadius in 720/1, as is specifically mention in the colophon of BL Or. 8606, copied in Edessa two years later.

(2) The date of the manuscript containing the work provides a terminus ante quem:

(a) This applies above all to the texts contained in BL Add. 12150, dated 411 (Edessa), notably Eusebius’ Theophania and Titus of Bostra’s work Against the Manichaeans.

(b) Cyril of Alexandria’s Worship in Spirit, preserved in Add. 12,166, dated 553.4

(c) PsZacharias, Historia Ecclesiastica, is preserved in Add. 17,202, dated c.600.

(d) Cyril of Alexandria’s Thesaurus, in Add. 12,135, dated 611.

(3) Internal criteria. Philoxenus’ Commentary on the Prologue of John is witness to a concern for precision in rendering Greek terms having a bearing on Christology, in particular esarkothe and enanthropesen, and in the case of both terms a progression in time over usage has been charted; thus for esarkothe the earliest rendering, lbesh pagra, is attested in fourth-century authors and in the original form of the Creed at the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon (410); in the fifth century etgashsham comes into widespread use, and at the end of that century the neologism etbassar first appears, probably at the same time as another neologism, etbarnash, a calque on enathropese, for which the earlier rendering had been hwa barnasha.5 These two terms thus provide a valuable terminus post quem of late fifth century for any translation containing them.

(4) Both an original translation and a revision are known: this applies in particular to:

(a) Gregory of Nazianzus’ Discourses were originally translated probably c.500, and revised by Paul of Edessa in the first half of the 620s. The original translation is only preserved in part; to supplement the small amount of the original version so far published from it, use has been made of two manuscripts containing it.

(b) Severus’ Homilies were first translated in the first half of the sixth century, and then revised by Jacob of Edessa in the late seventh century and completed in 700/1. With only a few exceptions, only the revision has been published; since the original translation is obviously an important witness for new forms in –aya, resort has been made to some early manuscripts containing it.

(c) Severus’ Hymns were first translated by Paul of Edessa in the 620s, and then revised by Jacob of Edessa in 675; the published edition contains Jacob’s revision.

(d) Sergius of Resh‘aina’s translation of the Ps-Dionysian corpus, revised by Phokas, has already been mentioned under 1(c).

(e) The sixth-century translations of Porphyry’s Eisagoge and of Aristotle’s Categories were revised in the seventh century by (respectively), Athanasius of Balad in 645, and Jacob of Edessa.

(f) Basil’s Homilies, translated in a very expansive manner, probably early in the fifth century, required a completely new translation in the seventh century; some of this new translation is preserved in Cambridge Add. 3175.

For the purposes of the present contribution it is primarily (a) and (b) which have been used.

(5) On grounds of style of translation. Study of the development of translation technique for biblical and authoritative patristic texts has revealed a steady development from reader- to text-oriented translation style, the turning point being c. 500. A considerable number of translation features, and above all a verbum ad verbum approach and its consequences, can serve as excellent indicators of later sixth- and especially seventh-century translations.

Main Established Dates for Particular Translations
411 terminus ante quem for translations in Add. 12,150, notably Titus of Bostra, Against the Manicheans, and Eusebius, Theophania.
457 Death of Ibas, responsible for unspecified translations of Theodore of Mopsuestia.
500/1 Date of Add. 14,528, terminus ante quem for translation of Canons of Nicaea etc.
507/8 Philoxenian revision of the New Testament (only known from quotations)
528 Date of translation by Paul of Kallinikos, of Severus, Against Julian of Halicarnassus.
535 Date of Add. 14,530, terminus ante quem for translation of Acts of Ephesus II.
536 Death of Sergius of Resh‘aina, translator of Ps.Dionysian Corpus.
544 Date of Add. 12.175, containing Mark the Monk and Pachomius, Asketikon.
553 Date of Add. 12,166, Cyril of Alexandria, Worship in Spirit.
563 Date of Vatican Syr. 143, terminus ante quem for translation of Severus, Homilies (original version).
563/4 Date of Vatican Syr. 104, terminus ante quem for translation of Athanasius, de Incarnatione (ed. R.W. Thomson, Athanasiana Syriaca I, 1-72).
584 Date of Add. 12,160, terminus ante quem for translation of John Chrysostom, Commentary on Corinthians.
593 Date of Add. 17,152, terminus ante quem for translation of John Chrysostom, Commentary on Thesssalonians.
611 Date of Add. 12,135, terminus ante quem for translation of Cyril of Alexandria, Thesaurus.
615/6 Harklean revision of New Testament.
6176 Syrohexapla translation of hexaplaric Septuagint text.
620s Paul of Edessa’s revision of Gregory Nazianzus’ Discourses (623/4); and first translator of Severus, Hymns.
645 Athanasius of Balad’s revision of Porphyry, Eisagoge.7
665/6 New translation of Basil’s Homilies.8
669 Athanasius of Balad’s translation of Severus, Select Letters.
675 Jacob of Edessa’s revision of Severus’ Hymns.
686/7 Translation of Cyprian, Letter to Quintus (ed. de Lagarde, Reliquiae iuris ecclesiastici antiquissimae syriace (1856), 88*-98*.
686/7 Jacob of Edessa’ translation of Testamentum Domini.
700/1 Completion of Jacob of Edessa’s revision of Severus’ Homilies.
704/5 Jacob’s revision of select Old Testament books.
721 Constantine of Edessa’s translation of Sophronius’ Letter to Arcadius.


Ahudemmeh = Aḥudemmeh [6th cent.].Traité sur l’homme, ed F. Nau (PO 3.1; 1905), 97-115, cited by page.

AMS = P. Bedjan, Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum I-VII (Paris/Leipzig, 1890-97).

AnSyr = Analecta Syriaca, ed. P. de Lagarde (1858).

Aphr Dem = Aphrahat, Demonstrations, ed. Parisot (Patrologia Syriaca I.1-2; 1894-1907).

Arist Categ = Aristotle, Categories, sixth-century translation, ed. D. King (2010).

Athan I-IV = Athanasiana Syriaca, I-IV, ed. R.W. Thomson (CSCO Scr. Syri 114, 118, 142 167; 1965-77), cited by volume and page.

AthBal = Athanasius of Balad [d. 687], Introduction to Aristotle’s Organon, ed. G. Furlani (1916).

Vat. 158 = his revised translation of Porphyry’s Eisagoge [dated 645].

Bab CEvag = Babai the Great [d. 628], Commentary on Evagrius, Kephalaia Gnostica, ed. W. Frankenberg, Evagrius Ponticus (1912).

Giw = Martyrdom of Giwargis, ed. P. Bedjan, Histoire de Mar Jabalaha, de trois autres patriarches, d’un prêtre et deux laïques nestoriens (1895), 416-571, cited by page.

LdU = Liber de Unione, ed. A. Vaschalde (CSCO Scr. Syri 34; 1915), cited by page.

Barhad HE = Barḥadbshabba of Halwan [6th/7th cent.], Historia Ecclesiastica, I-II, ed. F. Nau (PO 9.5; 1913 and 23.2; 1932), cited by page.

Barhad Schools = Barḥabdbshabba Arbaya [6th/7th cent.], Cause de la foundation des écoles, ed. A. Scher (PO 4.4; 1907), cited by page.

Basil CHexaem = Basil, Commentary on the Hexaemeron, ed. R.W. Thomson (CSCO Scr. Syri 222; 1995), cited by page.

Canons = Add. 14,528 (‘A’, dated 500/1) in F. Schultess, Die syrischen Kanones der Synoden von Nicaea bis Chalcedon (1908), cited by page.

ClemRom EpCor = Clement of Rome, Letter to the Corinthians, ed. R.L. Bensly and R.H. Kennett (1899), cite by page.

CyrAl Epp = Cyril of Alexandria, A Collection of Letters, ed. R. Ebied and L.R. Wickham (CSCO Scr Syri 157, 1975), cited by page.

HLk = Homilies on Luke, ed. J-B. Chabot (CSCO Scr. Syri 27; 1912), cited by page.

Thes = Thesaurus, in BL Add. 12,135 (AD 611).

CyrEd = Cyrus of Edessa [6th cent.], Six Explanations of the Liturgical Feasts, ed. W. Macomber (CSCO Scr. Syri 155; 1974), cited by page.

Dadisho‘ CAbIs = Dadisho‘ Qaṭraya [7th cent.], Commentaire du livre d’Abba Isaïe, ed. R. Draguet (CSCO Scr. Syri 144; 1972), cited by page.

DanSal CPs = Daniel of Salah [mid 6th cent.], Pushoq Mazmure [Commentary on Psalms], ed. J.Y. Çiçek (Monastery of Mor Ephrem, NL, 2004), cited by Psalm number.10

Didasc = Didascalia Apostolorum, I-II, ed. A. Vööbus (CSCO Scr. Syri 175, 179; 1979) cited by (continuous) page number.

DiyarbComm = Le Commentaire sur Genèse – Exode 9,32 du manuscript (olim) Diyarbakir 22, ed. L. van Rompay (CSCO Scr. Syri; 1986) cited by page.

DocMon = Documenta ad origines monophysitarum illustrandas, ed. J.-B. Chabot (CSCO Scr. Syri 17; 1908), cited by page.

Eliya = Eliya, Life of John of Tella in Vitae virorum apud monophysitas celeberrimorum, ed. E.W. Brooks (CSCO Scr. Syri 5; 1905), cited by page.

Ephes II = Acts of the Council of Ephesus, 449 (ms dated 535), ed. J. Flemming (1917).

Ephr = Ephrem, Hymns are cited from E.Beck’s editions in CSCO, by Hymn number and stanza.

CDiat, = Commentary on the Diatessaron, ed. L. Leloir (1961 and 1990).

CGenEx = Commentary on Genesis and Exodus, ed. R.M. Tonneau (CSCO Scr. Syri 71; 1955), quoted by section numbers.

Epiph W&M = Epiphanius, Weights and Measures, ed. J.E. Dean (1935).

EpMara = Letter of Mara bar Serapion [2nd/4th cent.], in W. Cureton, Spicelegium Syriacum (1855), cited by page.

Euseb Theophania = Eusebius, Theophania, ed. S. Lee (1842).

Evag = Evagrius, Letters and other texts in W. Frankenberg, Evagrius Ponticus (1912), cited by page or folio.

Cent = Évagre le pontique, Les six Centuries des Kephalaia Gnostica, ed. A. Guillaumont (PO 18.1; 1958), cited by Century and serial number.

GabrQat CLit NV = Gabriel Qatraya (6th/7th cent.), Commentary on the Liturgy, part ed. A. Neroth van Vogelpoel (2018); elsewhere cited by folio number of BL Or. 3336.

GeoAr Epp = George of the Arab Tribes [d.724], Letters, ed. J. Tannous.11

GregCyp = Gregory of Cyprus [6th/7th cent.], de theoria sancta, ed. I. Hausherr (1937).

Vat 123 = various works in Vatican Syr. 123.

GregNaz Disc = Gregory of Nazianzus, Discourses, ed. J-C. Haelewijk and A.B. Schmidt in Corpus Christianorum, Series Graeca, Corpus Nazianzenum, Versio Syriaca I-V (2001-2011).12

(I) Add 17146 = unpublished Discourses in the first translation, in Add. 17,146, cited by folio number.

(I) Add 18815 = unpublished Discourses in the first translation, in Add. 18,815, cited by folio number.

Iamboi = S. Gregorii Theologi Liber Carminum Iambicorum, I, ed. P.J. Bollig (1895), II, ed. H. Gismondi (1896),13 cited by volume and page.

GregNys = Ep 38 = Letter 38, ed. M. Albert, Aram 5 (1993), 23-64, cited by page.

Vat 106 = various works in Vatican Syr. 106 (6th cent.), cited by folio number.

GregThaum AnSyr = Gregory Thaumaturgus, Letter to Theopompus, ed. P. de Lagarde, Analecta Syriaca (1858), cited by page.

InedSyr = Inedita Syriaca, ed. E. Sachau (1870), cited by page.

IsNin I = Isaac of Nineveh [7th cent.], de perfectione religiosa, ed. P. Bedjan (1909), cited by page.

II = ‘Second Part’, ch. 4-41, ed. S.P Brock (CSCO Scr. Syri 224; 1995), cited by Part, chapter and section.

II Keph = Kephalaia I-IV (unpubished) in Oxford, Bodl. Syr. e. 7, cited by Century and section number.

III = Terza Collezione, ed. S. Chialà (CSCO Scr. Syri 246; 2011), cited by part, chapter and section.

Ishai = Ishai [6th cent.], On the Martyrs, ed. A. Scher (PO 7.1; 1910), cited by page.

Isho‘yahb III Epp = Isho‘yahb III [d. 659], Liber epistularum, ed. R. Duval (CSCO Scr. Syri 11, 1904), cited by page.

JacEd CHexaem = Jacob of Edessa [d. 708], Commentary on the Hexaemeron, ed. J.-B. Chabot (CSCO 44; 1928), cited by page and column.

JacSer A = Jacob of Serugh [d.521], 160 Unpublished Homilies, I-II. ed. R. Akhrass and I. Syryany (Damascus, 2017), cited by homily and couplet number.

B = Homiliae Selectae Mar Jacobi Sarugensis, ed. P. Bedjan, I-V (1905-10), cited by volume and page.

Epp = Iacobi Sarugensis epistolae quotquot supersunt, ed. G. Olinder (CSCO Scr. Syri 57; 1937), cite by page.

Turg = Six homélies festales en prose, ed. F. Rilliet (PO 43.4; 1986), cited by Turgama number and section.

JnAp DreiTr = John of Apamea [5th cent.], Drei Traktate, ed. L.G. Rignell (1960), cited by page.

Epp = Briefe, ed. L.G. Rignell (1941), cited by page.

Soul = Dialogue on the Soul, ed. S. Dedering (1936), cited by page.

Add 18814 = unpublished works in BL Add. 18,814 (7th/8th cent.), cited by folio number.

JnApht VSev = John of Beth Aphtonia, Life of Severus, ed. M. Kugener (PO 2.3; 1904), cited by page.

JnChr HJn = Homilies on John, 1-43, ed. J. Childers (CSCO Scr. Syri 250; 2013), cited by page.

Add 12160, 14567, 17152 = Homilies on Pauline Epistles in BL Add. 12,160 (AD 584) 14,567 (6th cent.) and 17,152 (dated 594), cited by folio number.

JnEph HE = John of Ephesus [d.589], Historia Ecclesiastica, Part III, ed. E.W. Brooks (CSCO Scr. Syri 54; 1935), cited by page.

Lives = Lives of the Eastern Saints, ed. E.W. Brooks (PO 17.1, 18.4, 19.2; 1923-4), cited by continuous page number.

JnPhenek = John of Phenek [7th cent.], Rish Melle, ed. A. Mingana, Sources syriaques (1903), cited by page.

JnPhilop Arbiter, = John Philoponus [d. c. 575], Arbiter, ed. A. Sanda (1930).

JnRuf Pleroph = John Rufus, Plérophories, ed.F. Nau (PO 8.1; 1911), cited by page.

JnSed = John I, of the Sedre [d. 648], surviving works ed. J. Martikainen (GOFS 34, 1991)

LibGrad = Liber Graduum, ed. M. Kmosko, Patrologia Syriaca I.iii (1926).

LibHeracl = Liber Heracleidis, ed. P. Bedjan (1910), cited by page.

MarkMonk = Mark the Monk, Discourses in BL Add. 12,175 (dated 544).

MonophTexts = Monophysite Texts of the Sixth Century, ed. A. van Roey and P. Allen (OLA 56; 1994), cited by page.

Nars = Narsai [d. c500], ed. A. Mingana (1905), cited by volume and page.

Fr = Homilies ed. J. Frishman (Six Biblical Homilies; Diss. Leiden, 1992). cited by homily number and line.

PP = Homilies, I-II, ed. Patriarchal Press (San Francisco, 1970), cited by volume and page number.14

Pachom Asket = Pachomius, Asketikon, ed. Bedjan, AMS V, 122-76 (in ms of 544).

PaulPers (Land) = Paul the Persian [6th cent.], in Anecdota Syriaca IV, 1-32, ed. J.P.N. Land (1875), cited by page.

PaulPers tr SevSeb = Paul, On de Interpretatione, ed. H. Hugonnard-Roche, Graeco-Arabica 3 (2013), 48-66, quoted by section.

PetKal = Peter of Kallinikos [d.591], Against Damian, ed. R. Ebied, L. Wickham and A. van Roey (CCSG 29 [= Book II], 32 [= Book III, 1-xix] 35 [= Book III xx-xxxiv], 54 [= Book III xxxv-l]; 1994-2003), cited by Book, chapter and line.

Philox CMtLk = Philoxenus [d. 523], Fragments of the Commenatary on Matthew and Luke, ed. J.W. Watt (CSCO Scr. Syri 171; 1978), cited by page.

CProlJn = Commentaire du Prologue johannique, ed. A. de Halleux (CSCO Scr. Syri 165; 1977), cited by page.

Disc = The Discourses of Philoxenus, I, ed. E.A.W. Budge (1893), cited by page.

EpSen = Letter to the Monks of Senun, ed. A. de Halleux (CSCO Scr. Syri 98; 1963), cited by page.

DissDecem = Dissertationes decem de Uno e Sancta Trinitate incorporato et passo, ed. M. Brière and F. Graffin (PO 15-41; 1920-82), cited by volume and page.

TrTres =Tractatus tres de Trinitate et Incarnatione, ed. A. Vaschalde (CSCO Scr. Syri 9; 1907), cited by page.

Pitra, AnalSac = excerpted texts in J.-B. Pitra (ed.), Analecta Sacra IV (1883), cited by page.

Porph = Porphyry, Eisagoge (sixth-cent. tr,), ed. S.P. Brock in Journal of the Iraqi Academy, Syriac Corporation 12 (1988), 315-66.

rev AthBal = revised tr. [of 645] by Athanasius of Balad in Vat. Syr. 158.

Probus (Hoffmann) = Probus [6th cent.], Commentary on Aristotle, de interpretatione, ed. J.G.E.Hoffmann (1869), cited by page.

Add 14660 = Comm. on de interpretatione, cited by folio.

CEisag – Commentary on Porphyry’s Eisagoge in Mingana Syr. 606, ff.1-28, cited by folio.

PsDion DN = Ps-Dionysius, Divine Names, ed. E. Fiori (CSCO Scr. Syri 252; 2014), cited by chapter and section number.

Myron = Ps-Dionysius, On the Myron, ed. W. Strothmann (GOFS 34; 1991).

Sin 52 = Ps-Dionysius, unpublished sections in Sinai Syr. 52.

PsNonnus = Ps-Nonnus, Mythological Scholia (attached to 4 homilies by Gregory of Nazianzus), ed. S.P. Brock (1970), cited by Homily title and section number.

PsZach = Ps-Zacharias, Historia Ecclesiastica, I-II, ed. E.W. Brooks (CSCO 38, 41; 1921, 1924), cited by volume and page.

Sahdona = Sahdona [6th/7th cent.], Oeuvres spirituelles, I-IV, ed. A. de Halleux (CSCO Scr. Syri 86, 90, 110, 112; 1960-65), cited by volume and page.

SergResh Introd = Sergius of Resh‘aina [d.536], Introduction to translation of PsDionysius, ed. P. Sherwood, L’Orient Syrien 5 (1960), 433-62; 6 (1961), 95-115, 121-56, cited by page number.

Sev cGramm = Severus of Antioch, Contra impium Grammaticum,I-III, ed. J. Lebon (CSCO 45, 50, 58; 1929-38), cited by page.

cJul = La polémique anti-julianiste, I-III, ed.R. Hespel (CSCO Scr. Syri 104, 124, 126, 136; 1964-71), cited by volume and page.

CollLett = A Collection of Letters, ed. E.W. Brooks (PO 12.2 and 14.1; 1916, 1920), cited by volume and page.

Hom = Cathedral Homilies, ed. Brière, Graffin et alii (PO 4-36; 1906-72), cited by volume and page.

Add 14599 = first translation of Homilies in Add. 14,599 (AD 569), cited by folio number.

Vat 142, 143 = first translation of Homilies in Vatican Syr. 142 and 143, cited by folio number.

Hymns = The Hymns of Severus and Others, I-II, ed. E.W. Brooks (PO 6.1, 7.5; 1910-11), cited by page.

SelLett = Select Letters, ed. E.W. Brooks, The Sixth Book of the Select Letters of Severus, I.i-ii (1902-4), cited by page.

SevSeb = Severus Sebokht [d. 666/7], On the Constellations, ed. F. Nau, in Revue de l’Orient Chrétien 27 (1929/30), 327-410, 28 (1932/3), 85-100, cited by page.

Add 17156 = Severus Sebokht, Letters in BL Add. 17,156A.15

Scholia = Scholia on Gregory of Nazianzus, ed. I. Isebaert-Cauuet, in A.B. Schmidt (ed.), Studia Nazianzenica II (2010), cited by page.

ShemTayb = Shem‘on d-Ṭaybuteh [7th cent.], ed. A. Mingana (WS VII), cited by page and column number.

Shubhal = Shubḥalmaran [6th/7th cent], The Book of Gifts, ed. D. Lane (CSCO Scr. Syri 236; 204).

Sophron EpArcad = Sophronius, Lettre à Arcadius de Chypre, ed. M. Albert (PO 39.2; 1978), cited by section number.

Syh = Syrohexapla, ed. de Lagarde/Rahlfs, and Ceriani.

Synodicon = The Synodicon in the West Syrian Tradition, I-II, ed. A. Vööbus (CSCO Scr. Syri 161, 163; 1975-6).

SynodOr = Synodicon Orientale ed. J.B. Chabot (1902), cited by page.

TheodMops CatHom= Theodore of Mopsuestia, Catechetical Homilies, ed. A. Mingana, WS V-VI (1932-3), cited by volume and page.

CJn = Commentary on John, ed. J.-M. Vosté (CSCO Scr. Syri 62; 1940), cited by page.

ThomEd = Thomas of Edessa [6th cent.], On the Nativity, ed. S.J. Carr (1898).

TitBostra = Titus of Bostra, Against the Manichaeans, ed. P. de Lagarde (1859), cited by page.

VAhudemmeh = Life of Aḥudemmeh, ed. F. Nau (PO 3.1, 7-51), cited by page.

VEphr = Life of Ephrem, ed. J. Amar (CSCO Scr. Syri 242; 2011), cited by chapter and section number.

WS VII = A. Mingana, Early Christian Mystics (Woodbrooke Studies VII; 1934), cited by page and column.

ZachR VSev = Zacharias Rhetor, Life of Severus, ed M. Kugener (PO 2.1; 1904), cited by page.

The approximate date of the earliest attested occurrence in a Syriac author is given in roman numeral (e.g. V, VI/VII etc.) denoting the century; in several cases the date of the earliest translation (TR) witness may well be earlier (e.g. s.v. ananqaya). Where a lexeme is only attested in translation(s) a date in brackets is given if an approximate date is known; this will be the case, for example, where the earlier versions of Gregory of Nazianzus’ Discourses and Severus’ Homilies (or his polemic with Julian of Halicarnassus) are available.

The symbol ♰ denotes adjectives based on biblical names (or, occasionally, places).

ܐܐܪܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 211b; IsNin I 87; AMS VI 611. TR Athan III, 69; GregNaz (I) Add 17146, 107a; Sev cJul I, 270.
ܐܒܕܢܝܐ post VII
ܐܒܗܝܐ V/VI I (3) Esdr 1:29; JacSer A 39:368; ThomEd 38; JnPhenek 15. TR Evag Add 17167, 94b; GregNaz Disc IV 234-5; PsDion Sinai 52, 50b; Sev Vat 142, 47b3; Pachom Asket 12175, 9b; Athan III, 149; Phil 2:1 Harkl.
ܐܒܝܐ SpicSyr 25.
ܐܒܠܢܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 102; TR PsNonnus (I) Invect I.79; Sev Hom (PO 20, 403).
ܐܒܪܗܡܝܐ♰ VII JohnSed D.2.26; Isho‘yahb III Epp 162. TR Sev Hymns PO 7 795.
ܐܓܓܝܐ♰ post VII
ܐܓܘܪܣܝܐ VII Isho`yahb III, Epp. 179.
ܐܓܝܘܦܢܘܡܛܝܩܝܐ post VII
ܐܕܡܘܣܝܐ VI/VII Babai, LdU 246, CEvag 201a.
ܐܕܡܝܐ♰ V Nars I, 22; Ishai (PO 4) 48; Bab LdU 91; IsNin I, 214.
ܐܕܡܢܛܝܐ (VII) TR Jer 17:1 Syh.
ܐܕܫܝܐ (VI) TR PsDion DN IV.10; Porph Eisag 337.
ܐܕܫܢܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc II, 65; AthanBal Vat. Syr. 158.
ܐܗܪܘܢܝܐ♱ V/VI JacSer B VI 211; DanSal CPs 132; JohnSed A.98.23; Bab CEvag182. TR IV Macc 7:12.
ܐܘܝܝܐ post VII
ܐܘܟܦܢܝܐ post VII
ܐܘܠܨܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom PO 22, 211.
ܐܘܡܢܝܐ VII Sahdona III 151; JacEd Hexaem 109b; IsNin II Keph IV 41. TR TheodMops CatHom WS V 173; GregNaz Disc IV, 222-3; Sev Hom (I) Vat 142, 9b; SergResh, ZDMG 1885, 244.
ܐܘܢܓܠܝܐ V/VI Philox CMtLk 69; Sahdona III, 80. TR Sev Vat 142, 90b1 PsZech HE II, 160, VSev 59; Sev cJul II 168; Athan III, 59; CyrAl HLk 19.
ܐܘܣܝܝܐ VI Probus Add. 14660, 26a; JnPhilop Arbiter I.41; IsNin I, 190; GeoAr Epp 6.1.5. TR LibHeracl 266; GregNaz Vat 142, 53b2; PsDion Myron (Phokas) III.9.
ܐܘܣܝܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab LdU 9. Giw 422.
ܐܘܩܝܢܣܝܐ post VII
ܐܘܪܓܢܝܐ VI JnPhilop Arbiter III.16; IsNin I, 476. TR GregNaz Add 14549, 19b; Sev cJul II 131.
ܐܘܪܓܢܝܣܽܛܝܐ♰ VII Bab Giw 496, CEvag 160a.
ܐܘܪܕܥܝܐ post VII
ܐܘܪܫܠܡܝܐ♰ V/VI JacSer Epp 83; Philox CMtLk 46; DanSal CPs 102; JohnSed D.2.17; Bab CEvag 176a.
ܐܚܝܐ (VI) TR JnChr Add 17152, 114b1.
ܐܚܢܝܐ (VI) TR Sev cJul II 89; SelLett 287; ZachR VSev 103.
ܐܚܝܢܝܐ (VI) TR GregNaz Disc IV, 274; MonophTexts 68.
ܐܚܪܝܐ Exod 4:8, Mt 20:14; Ephr Nis 14:13, 49:16; JacSer A 107:314.
ܐܚܪܢܝܐ V/VI Philox TrTres 181; Probus CEisag 11b. TR Is 2:6 Syh.
ܐܛܘܡܝܐ post VII TR Epiph W&M 48.
ܐܝܓܗܡܘܢܝܩܝܐ post VII
ܐܝܙܒܠܝܐ♰ VI/VII Barhad HE (PO 9) 115.
ܐܝܙܪܥܠܝܐ♰ VI/VII Barhad HE (PO 9) 56.
ܐܝܚܝܕܝܐ Lk 8:42, John 3:16; Ephr Fid 42:5; JulSaba 7:13; JnApam Soul 69; Philox TrTres 19; JnEph Lives (PO 17) 209; Bab CEvagr 30; SynodOr 140. TR; DocMon 31; Sev cGramm III.2, 176; PsDion DN VIII.9; JnChr Add 14567, 53a.
ܐܰܝܳܠܢܝܐ VI DanSal Ps 68.
ܐܝܼܠܢܝܐ (VI) TR GregNaz I (Add 17146, 45b); PsZech HE II 148.
ܐܝܡܡܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 1 (Diettrich 139); JnEph Lives 407; JacEd. CHexaem 179b. TR GregNaz (I) Add 17146, 9a.
ܐܝܢܝܐ VI SynodOr 250; TR GregNaz Disc II, 63.
ܐܝܣܪܠܝܐ♰ II Cor 11:22; Nars I, 38; JacSer B IV 754; Philox TrTres 225; ThomEd 20; CyrEd 168; Sahdona II, 72.
ܐܝܪܝܚܘܢܝܐ♰ VII GabrQat NV 344; Bab CEvag 114b.
ܐܝܬܝܝܐ V/VI JacSer Turg 26, Epp 199; Philox, TrTres 250; DanSal CPs 18; JnPhenek 5; IsNin I 190. TR Didasc 9; Evag Cent I:89; PsDion DN II.4.
ܐܟܘܠܝܐ (VI) SergResh ZDMG 1885 299 (=phagedainika).
ܐܟܚܕܢܝܐ post VII
ܐܟܣܢܝܐ V/VI III Macc 6:3; JacSer B II, 815; DanSal CPs 119; Dadisho‘ CAbIs 7; Isho‘yahb III Epp 217. TR GregNaz Disc IV, 70-1; Sev Hom (PO 26, 370); CyrAl HLk 63; DocMon 180.
ܐܠܗܘܬܢܝܐ post VII
ܐܠܗܝܐ IV Ephr SDN 8, Eccl 52:6, cHaer 55:2; DAddai 9; Nars I, 4; JacSer B I, 89; and passim.
ܐܠܝܩܝܐ V JnApam Epp 8.
ܐܠܥܝܐ post VII
ܐܠܨܝܐ VI Probus (Hoffmann) 89; IsNin II xv 1; JacEd CHexaem. 125b; GeoAr Epp 7.8.2. TR GregNaz Disc IV 57; ClemRom EpCor 29.
ܐܠܘܨܝܐ VII IsNin II xiv 4.
ܐܡܗܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 118b; Isho`yahb III Epp 107; TR GregNaz Disc IV, 228-9.
ܐܡܗܢܝܐ Post VII
ܐܡܪܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 9a; Sahdona III, 95.
ܐܢܛܝܦܬܝܩܝܐ Post VII
ܐܢܠܘܛܝܩܝܐ VI JnPhilop OpMon 109; SynodOr 250.
ܐܢܢܩܝܐ VI PaulPers (Land) 12; JnPhenek 152; Dadisho, CAbbIs V.2; IsNin I, 130. TR TheodMops CJohn 68; Sev Hom (PO 35, 298); Athan FestLett 25*.
ܐܢܫܝܐ IV Ephr cHaer 22.10, CDiat II.9; Nars I, 155; JacSer B III, 325; Philox TrTres 38; TR JnChr HJohn 4; etc.
ܐܢܫܢܝܐ VII IsNin I, 157.
ܐܣܘܛܝܐ (VII) TR TDNJ 96.
ܐܣܘܡܛܝܐ Post VII
ܐܣܛܘܟܣܝܐ VII Bab CEvag 25a, 97a; IsNin I, 156. TR PsDion DN IV.10
ܐܣܛܘܟܣܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 8, 338).
ܐܣܛܘܢܝܐ VII GeoAr (AnalSyr 122).
ܐܣܝܝܐ (VII) TR Sev, SelLett 156.
ܐܣܟܘܠܝܐ VI/VII Barhad HE (PO 9) 120; DiyarbComm CGen. 13.
ܐܣܦܘܓܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 295a.
ܐܣܦܝܣܝܐ VII Sahdona III, 135.
ܐܣܦܝܪܝܐ VI JnPhilop Arbiter I.38; JacEd CHexaem 49a.
ܐܣܦܝܪܝܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab LdU 184.
ܐܦܘܕܝܩܛܝܩܝܐ VII Isho`yahb Epp 176; SevSeb Add 17156, 8b; SynodOr 250.
ܐܦܘܦܛܝܩܝܐ VI PaulPers 29; Probus CEisag 10a; AthBal Introd 734.
ܐܦܝܣܩܘܦܝܐ VI/VII Isho`yahb Epp 172. TR Ephes II, 152.
ܐܦܝܩܘܪܘܣܝܐ♰ VI/VII Bab CEvag 129b.
ܐܦܝܬܪܘܢܝܐ VII GeoAr Epp 7.9.4.
ܐܦܪܬܝܐ♰ V/VI JacSer Epp 57; B II 527.
ܐܪܒܥܝܢܝܐ post VII ‘Lenten’.
ܐܪܓܘܢܝܐ V/VI JacSer B III 366. TR GregNaz (I) Add.17146, 102a; GregNys Ep 38, 44.
ܐܪܙܢܝܐ V Nars I, 364; JacSer A 4:153; Philox CMatth/Lk 28; DanSal CPs 23; IsNin I, 390. TR Ephes II 126; GregNaz Vat 142, 65b1; Add 14549, 51a; JnChr Add 12142, 142a2; Sev (I) Add 14599, 116b; cJulian I, 213; Athan IV, 90.
ܐܪܚܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 38, 428).
ܐܪܛܝܩܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 48. (See also harṭiqaya).
ܐܪܝܘܣܝܐ♰ VI/VII Bab LdU 109.
ܐܪܝܢܝܐ♰ TR Athan II, 17.
ܐܪܝܣܛܘܛܠܝܐ♰ VI/VII Bab CEvag 156a.
ܐܪܟܘܣܝܐ VI/VII Bab Giw 489.
ܐܪܢܒܝܐ (VI) TR Epiph, W&M 53d (‘Lagid’).
ܐܪܣܝܣܝܐ Post VII
ܐܪܥܢܝܐ IV Aphr Dem 8:5; Eph Azym 16.31; Nars I, 8; JacSer B IV, 229; Philox CPJ 5. TR Didasc 131; JnChr HJohn 19; Sev cJulian I, 197.
ܐܪܫܟܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 75.
ܐܪܬܕܘܟܣܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 127a.
ܐܬܝܪܝܐ (VI) TR SergResh tr.Peri Kosmou (AnSyr 157).
ܐܬܠܝܛܝܐ (VI) TR Sev Vat 142, 11a; Hom (PO 22, 241); Hymns 225.
ܐܬܪܢܝܐ VII IsNin I, 86; II viii.13.
ܒܒܘܣܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 20, 383).
ܒܒܠܝܐ♰ VI/VII

Sahdona II 75; Dad CAbIs XIII.3.

ܒܘܟܪܝܐ Post VII
ܒܘܪܝܐ Post VII
ܒܘܪܟܬܢܝܐ AMS III 535.
ܒܛܝܠܘܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܒܛܝܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 26, 267).
ܒܝܬܝܐ IV Ephr cHaer 52:2, Nat 23:10; Nars II, 83; Philox TrTres 242; IsNin I, 347. TR GregNaz Disc IV, 236-7.
ܒܟܝܪܝܐ IV Deut 11:14; James 5:7; Ephr Eccl 47:11, Par 7:9. TR Jer 5:24 Syh.
ܒܠܚܘܕܢܝܐ TR Sev CGramm II, 104.
ܒܠܢܝܐ VI VEphr 12.
ܒܣܡܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 26, 373).
ܒܣܪܢܝܐ V Nars I, 59; JacSer II, 748; IsNin I 9; TR TheodMops CatHom 187; GregNaz Disc IV, 270-1.
ܒܥܝܪܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 32b.16
ܒܥܝܪܬܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 152a.
ܒܥܠܕܒܒܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc III, 17; Sev Hom (PO 23, 65).
ܒܥܠܙܒܒܝܐ♰ post VII
ܒܥܪܝܪܝܐ IV Ephr Virg 4:13, SdFid I, 313; Nars I, 303; JacSer B III, 501; DanSal CPs 68. TR Euseb HE I.ii.19; TitBostra 53; Ephes II 88; GregNaz Disc IV, 8; JnChr HJohn 229.
ܒܪܒܣܬܪܝܐ VII GregCypr 86.
ܒܪܒܪܝܐ VI/VII Barhad HE (PO 9) 540; Sahdona II 39. TR Athan IV, 180; Sev cGramm I, 3.
ܒܪܘܝܢܝܐ VII IsNin II xxxv 3.
ܒܪܘܠܝܐ TR GregNyss Ep 38, 44.
ܒܪܝܐ II Ezek 11:5; Ephr Nis 9:4; cHaer 31:8, PR I, 91; SDN 32; LibGrad X.3; JacSer B III,601. TR Canons 70; JnChr HJohn 77.
ܒܪܢܝܐ ?III/IV EpMara 43; Ishai (PO 7, 30). TR Athan FestLett 28*.
ܒܪܝܫܝܬܝܐ VII Bab CEvag 114a.
ܒܪܝܬܢܝܐ post VII
ܒܪܩܝܐ VII IsNin II xx.20.
ܒܪܩܢܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 19.
ܒܬܘܠܝܐ V/VI Philox EpSen 46; DanSal CPs 17; GeoAr Epp 6.1.13. TR GregNaz Add 18815, 13a; Sev Add 14599, 181b; cJul I, 100; PsZech.HE I, 196; VSev 50; Pitra AnSac 197; Joel 1:8 Syh.

post VII

ܓܐܘܡܛܪܝܩܝܐ VII SevSeb Add 17156 9a; TR Sev Hom (PO 26, 401 tr JacEd).
ܓܒܥܘܢܝܐ♰ post VII
ܓܒܪܝܐ VI SynodOr 546; TR Didasc 51; PsNonnus I, Inv.I.11.
ܓܒܪܢܝܐ V/VI JacSer B V 581; Sahdona I. 49; TR Didasc 23; GregNaz (I) Add.17146, 94b; Sir 26:2 Syh.
ܓܓܪܢܝܐ VII Sahdona I, 64.
ܓܕܥܘܢܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܓܕܫܢܝܐ (VI) TR MarkMonk (Add. 17192, 118a); Eliya (van Roey) 62; Porph Eisag 339.
ܓܘܓܝܐ (VI) Sev cJul II 82.
ܓܘܙܢܝܐ TR DocMon 17.
ܓܘܝܐ Ezek 11:4; I Macc 9:54; Aphr Dem 9:10; Ephr Eccl 15:2, Nis 9:4, SDN 32, CDiat VII.23; LibGrad X.3; JnApam Soul 49; Nars Fr V 93; JacSer B III 650. TR JnChr HJohn 22, etc.
ܓܘܡܕܢܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc IV, 152-3; Sev cNeph 45.
ܓܰܘܳܢܝܐ V/VI Philox DiscDec PO 15, 511); CyrEd 73. TR Canons 59; GregNaz Vat 142, 21b1; Porph Eisag 324 & rev AthBal 13a.
ܓܘܦܣܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 55a.
ܓܘܫܡܢܝܐ V Nars PP II, 454; JacSer A 86:21; Philox Disc 590; CyrEd 33; IsNin 31. TR Euseb Theoph 2.21; GregNaz Disc IV 36-7; JnChr HJohn 225.
ܓܙܝܪܝܐ AMS II, 609.
ܓܙܢܝܐ TR DocMon 17.
ܓܝܕܢܝܐ VI/VII Ahudemmeh (Chabot) 61.
ܓܝܚܘܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab LdU 5; TR Sev Add 14599, 70b.
ܓܝܢܕܝܐ VII ShemTayb (WS VII) 317b.
ܓܠܘܝܐ V/VI JacSer B IV, 384; AMS II, 320; TR PsNonnus Bas 1.
ܓܠܝܕܝܐ VII GeoAr Epp 7.8.3.
ܓܠܝܠܝܐ IV Ephr cJul 3:17.
ܓܠܝܢܝܐ Post VII
ܓܢܒܪܝܐ V/VI JacSer B V, 581.
ܓܢܘܢܝܐ Post VII
ܓܢܣܝܐ (VII) TR Sev SelLett 334.
ܓܢܣܢܝܐ VI JnPhilop Arbiter I.34; Bab LdU 102; IsNin I 28; AMS VI, 564; TR GregNaz Disc IV, 358-9; Porph Eisag 327 & rev AthBal 3a; Epiph W&M 50d; Sev Neph 19; Arist Categ (King) 3:7; CyrAl HLk 312; DocMon 74.
ܓܦܢܝܐ VI TR Epiph W&M 60b; Arist Categ 274-5; Ezek 1:7 Syh.
ܓܪܡܢܝܐ IV Ephr PR II 19; JacEd CHexaem 299a.
ܓܪܡܦܝܠܝܐ (VII) TR Cant 7:14 Syh.
ܕܐܒܢܝܐ VII Sahdona III, 95.
ܕܒܚܢܝܐ (VII) TR PsNonnus Epiph.15 (= thytike).
ܕܒܫܢܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 150.
ܕܪܕܪܝܐ Post VII
ܕܗܒܝܐ VII JohnSed D.2.31. TR Cant 5:15 Syh.
ܕܗܒܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 102a.
ܕܘܒܪܢܝܐ Post VII
ܕܘܓܡܛܝܩܝܐ (VII) TR Sev SelLett 405.
ܕܘܝܕܝܐ♰ VII/VIII GeoAr Epp 7.7.3.
ܕܘܟܝܝܐ TR Epiph W&M 76a.
ܕܘܟܬܢܝܐ VIII TR Sophron EpArcad 218.
ܕܚܝܚܢܝܐ Post VII
ܕܝܘܬܢܝܐ VIII JohnDal Epp 10.1 (‘written in ink’).
ܕܝܠܝܐ V/VI JacSer B III, 618 [fp]; Philox DissDec (PO 15) 511; CMtLk 61; CyrEd 30; (Ps)Nars I, 281; IsNin I, 26..TR Athan II, 22; Porph Eisag 345.
ܕܝܠܢܝܐ VI Ahudemmeh (PO 3) 114; Probus (Hoffmann) 71; Bab LdU 15; IsNin I, 86. TR Athan II, 22; III, 34; GregNaz (I) Add.17146, 11a; Disc IV, 254-5; ClemRom EpCor 31.
ܕܝܠܩܛܝܩܝܐ VI Probus CEisag 24a; Isho`yahb III, Epp 37; SynodOr 250. TR GregNaz (I) Add.18815, 23a.
ܕܝܨܢܝܐ♰ IV Ephr cHaer 23:9; JnPhenek 135.
ܕܝܪܝܐ VII TR Sev Hom (PO 23, 65) ‘monastic’.
ܕܝܬܝܣܝܣܝܐ Post VII
ܕܝܬܝܩܝܐ TR Epiph, W&M 49a.

Post VII

ܕܟܪܢܝܐ VII JacEd Encheir 230. TR Didasc 34.
ܕܠܩܘܒܠܝܐ V Nars PP I, 324; LibHeracl 93; Philox Disc 543; CyrEd 93; IsNin I, 495. TR GregNaz Disc IV, 178; Arist Categ 11:15.
ܕܡܘܣܝܐ JohnRuf, Pleroph (PO 8, 25).
ܕܡܘܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܕܡܝܝܐ VII Isho`yahb III Epp 178; IsNin I, 194.
ܕܡܢܝܐ VII TR Sev Hom (PO 38, 402); AnaphSyr. I, 240.
ܕܡܥܢܝܐ (VI) TR Sev cJulian II, 44.
ܕܩܢܢܝܐ VII JacEd. CHexaem. 79b. TR Sev Hom (PO 26, 316).
ܕܪܘܫܝܐ Post VII
ܗܒܠܢܝܐ Post VII
ܗܓܓܝܐ VI CyrEd 33; DanSal CPs 51; Bab CEvag 93a. TR JnChr Add 12160, 44a; Elia, VJohnTella 62.
ܗܓܡܘܢܝܩܝܐ SynodOr 69.
ܗܕܝܝܐ VI/VII Shubhal 104; AnaphSyr II, 92.
ܗܘܠܝܐ VI/VII Barhad Schools 25. TR GregNys Vat 106, 81a; PsDion Sinai 52, 54b.
ܗܘܠܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag. 92a; JacEd. CHexaem 44b; IsNin I, 156. TR Evag Add 17167, 96a; GregNaz (I) Add 17146, 1b; Disc IV, 30-31; GregNys Vat 106, 80a; Athan I, 10; FestLett 33*; PsDion Myron (Phokas) III.6.
ܗܘܢܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc IV, 393.
ܗܘܢܢܝܐ VII IsNin I, 219; GregCypr Vat 123, 102a.
ܗܝܟܠܝܐ (VII) Zeph 1:4 Syh.
ܗܦܟܝܐ IV Ephr Eccl 48:12, Nat 5:5, Nis 41:3, SDN 32, EpPub 11, PR I,64; Nars S V:198; JacSer Epp 116; AMS 1V, 170. TR Didasc 92.
ܗܦܟܢܝܐ VII SynodOr 529.
ܗܦܩܛܝܩܝܐ VII AthBal Introd 736.
ܗܪܛܝܩܝܐ VI JnEph Lives 42; Bab Giw 543; TR JohnApht VSev (PO 2, 214); Sev (saepe!); Zach VSev 112.
ܙܐܦܢܝܐ V Nars (JAs 1899) 452, 463; CyrEd 22. TR CyrAl Thes (Add 12135, 44b2).
ܙܒܝܢܝܐ (VI) TR GregNaz. (I) Disc. II, 26.Add. 17146, 81b.
ܙܒܢܝܐ (VI) AMS III 354; IV 472. TR GregNaz.(I) Add 17146, 91b, Disc IV, 142-3; PsZach HE II, 169; Sev Hom (PO 25, 19); Athan FestLetters 30*; CyrAl HLk 45.
ܙܒܢܢܝܐ V Nars Fr VI.281; Philox Disc. 218; Bab LdU 239; AMS II 419; III, 474; SynodOr 130. TR Nilus 22.
ܙܕܩܝܐ Post VII
ܙܘܓܢܝܐ VI PaulPers (Land) 29.
ܙܘܥܢܝܐ Post VII
ܙܝܙܢܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 126.
ܙܢܝܝܐ (VII) Prov 7:10 Syh.
ܙܩܝܦܝܐ VII Sahdona I, 51.
ܙܪܝܒܝܐ (VI) TR PsArist Peri Kosmou 142.
ܙܪܥܝܐ (VII) TR PsNonnus, Epiph. 3.
ܚܐܦܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 174b; AMS VI 567 (Abḥay).
ܚܐܪܝܐ VI IV Macc 14:2; CyrEd 37; Aḥudemmeh 113; Barhad HE (PO 9, 103); IsNin I, 92. TR GregNaz Add 14549, 51b; GregNys Vat 106, 99b.
ܚܒܪܢܝܐ SynodOr 157.
ܚܓܓܝܐ (VI) TR Sev cJulian. II, 236.
ܚܓܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 12, 96).
ܚܕܘܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܚܕܢܝܐ VI/VII Isho’yahb II 221; Bab LdU 6; Sahdona II, 12; AthBal Introd 726.
ܚܘܒܝܐ TR Sev Philaleth 42.
ܚܘܒܢܝܐ VI JnPhilop Arbiter I.34; Sahdona I, 124; Isho`yahb III Epp. 61; GeoAr Epp 7.9.6. TR Sev Vat 142, 79a2; Sophron EpArcad 30.
ܚܘܒܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܚܘܕܪܢܝܐ TR GregNyss Ep 38, 44.
ܚܘܝܝܐ Post VII
ܚܙܘܝܐ VI SevSeb ROC 1929/30 355; IsNin II v 4. TR PsDion Sinai 52, 56b, 73b.
ܚܙܝܪܝܐ VII Sahdona IV, 56; Bab CEvag 2a. TR CyrAl HLk 129.
ܚܛܘܦܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 241b; TR Sev Hom (PO 37, 70).
ܚܛܛܢܝܐ Post VII
ܚܛܝܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܚܝܘܬ ܫܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev, Hom (PO 23. 50).
ܚܝܘܬܢܝܐ V Nars I, 116; SevSeb ROC 1929/30, 369; JacEd CHexaem 333b.
ܚܟܡܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܚܠܒܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 227a. TR CyrAl HLk 45.
ܚܠܡܝܐ TR GregNys Vat 106, 14a.
ܚܠܡܢܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 63; TR Sev cJulian I, 254; Hymns 10; PetKall cDamianum III.viii.182.
ܚܠܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 133b. (‘on sand’).
ܚܡܳܪܝܐ VII TR Matt.18:6 Harkl.
ܚܡܬܢܝܐ VI/VII Isho`yahb III Epp 139. TR LibHeracl 367; PsNonnus Invect I.3 (ḥemtanaye tar`e = Thermopylai).
ܚܢܢܝܐ♰ VI/VII Bab Giw 496.
ܚܢܦܝܐ VI JohnEph HE 85; JnPhenek 6; VAhumdemmeh 41; Bab LdU 12. TR Didasc 36; GregNaz Disc III, 49; Pitra AnSac 228.
ܚܣܢܝܐ VII IsNin I, 519.
ܚܦܝܝܐ IV Ephr cJul 1:10.
ܚܨܦܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 62b. TR Sev Hom (PO 35, 314); Is 30:14 Syh.
ܚܪܘܒܝܐ Post VII
ܚܪܝܝܐ IV Ephr Eccl 52:6; Nars PP I, 585; JacSer Epp 131. TR IV Macc 9:10; TitBostr C.Manich 184; Didasc 134.
ܚܪܝܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 22, 281).
ܚܪܡܢܝܐ V Nars I, 121; SynodOr 96.
ܚܫܘܟܝܐ VI JnEph Lives 451; AMS I, 180. TR Sev CGramm III.2, 5.
ܚܫܚܬܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 20, 279).
ܚܫܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 226a; GabrQat CLit. (Or 3336, 66v); IsNin I, 19, 523; WS VII, 212a. TR GregNaz Vat 142, 6b2; Disc IV, 349.
ܛܗܪܝܐ V/VI Philox Disc 427; Bab Giw 566. TR GregNaz Add. 17146, 45a; Disc IV, 94-5; Sev Hymns 309; Syh Ps 90:6.
ܛܘܒܢܝܐ (VI) TR Sev Vat 142 66b1; cJul II, 149.
ܛܘܒܬܢܝܐ VII Bab CEvag 159b. TR GregNaz Vat 142, 115a1.
ܛܘܦܣܢܝܐ VI Hnana (PO 7, 58); Bab, LdU 239; JacEd CHexaem 181b; IsNin II viii 12. TR GregNaz.(I) Add 17146, 21b; Disc I, 19; Sev Add 14599, 14b; Athan IV, 67; FestLett 34*; PsDion Myron (Phokas) III.9.
ܛܘܪܝܐ IV/V ‘Ephr’, EpTuraye (= Serm. IV.3); JnEph Lives 247; Bab CEvag 12. TR Euseb JSL 1864, 406; Basil, CHexaem 137; Syh Josh 9:1.
ܛܰܘܪܢܝܐ (VI/VII) TR GregNys Ep. 38, 46; CyrAl Thes (Add 12135, 66a2).
ܛܝܒܘܬܢܝܐ VII VSabrisho‘ 325; IsNin I, 7.
ܛܝܛܢܝܐ TR Sev cGramm III.1, 56.
ܛܝܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 332b; AMS VI, 559. TR Sev cJul II 81; Athan IV, 57.
ܛܝܦܝܐ (VII) TR PetKall cDamian II.xvi.49 (‘superficial’).
ܛܠܘܡܝܐ TR CyrAl HLk 171.
ܛܠܝܘܣܝܐ (VI) TR GregNaz Disc II, 101 (S1); PetKall cDamian II xvi 49.
ܛܠܝܘܬܢܝܐ VI/VII Barhad HE (PO 9) 102, 109.
ܛܠܝܝܐ TR Epiph W&M 53b; Sev Hom (PO 25, 12); Pitra AnSac 76.
ܛܶܠܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag. 145b. TR Athan IV, 51; Sev Vat 142, 99a2; Hom (PO 12, 48).
ܛܰܠܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 78b.
ܛܥܝܝܐ (VII) Mt 18:12 Harkl. margin.
ܛܪܘܢܝܐ VII Isho`yahb III Epp 271. TR GregNaz Disc IV, 379; Sev Hom (PO 37, 92).
ܛܪܘܦܝܩܝܐ VII SevSeb ROC 1929/30 369.
ܛܪܢܝܐ VII Syh (Rahlfs p.12).
ܛܪܣܘܣܝܐ♰ V Nars JAsiat 1899, 462.
ܝܒܝܫܝܐ Post VII
ܝܒܫܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 102a.
ܝܕܥܬܢܝܐ (VI) TR Sev cJul II, 84.
ܝܘܒܠܢܝܐ VII IsNin II Keph IV 7.
ܝܘܠܦܢܝܐ VII SevSeb Add 17156, 9b.
ܝܘܣܦܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܝܘܩܢܬܝܐ (VII) TR Apoc 9:17 Harkl.
ܝܘܪܕܢܢܝܐ♱ Post VII
ܝܘܫܦܛܝܐ♱ Post VII
ܝܘܬܪܢܝܐ (VII) TR Ps.Nonnus Invect I:90
ܝܚܝܕܝܐ see under ܐܝܚܝܕܝܐ.
ܝܠܘܦܝܐ Post VII
ܝܡܝܐ (VII) TR PaulPers tr SevSeb §7 (‘juratif’).
ܝܡܝܢܝܐ V/VI JacSer A 51:67; DanSal CPs 68; IsNin I, 88; [already in Palmyrene]. TR GregNaz (I) Add 17146, 15a; Athan IV, 74; Mt 5:29, 2 Cor 6:7 Harkl.
ܝܡܡܝܐ VI/VII Isho`yahb III, Epp 143; JacEd CHexaem 58a; IsNin II xix 8. TR GregNaz (I) Add 17146, 107a; Disc IV, 102-3.
ܝܣܪܠܝܐ̊♰ V Narsai Fr VI 272; JacSer B IV 754. (See also ܐܝܣ- ).
ܝܥܪܝܐ Post VII
ܝܫܘܥܝܐ♰ VI/VII PsNars I, 275; Bab LdU 4.
ܝܬܢܝܐ VII Isho`yahb III, Epp 136; VSabrisho 291; IsNin II Keph IV 6.
ܟܐܢܘܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܟܐܦܝܐ (VI) TR GregNaz (I) Add 17146, 35b, Disc IV 10-11; JnChr Add 17152, 101a1; Exod. 31:18 Syh; John 2:6 Harkl.
ܟܐܦܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem. 127a. TR Sev Vat 143, 76b2; GregNaz. Disc V, 11; Iamboi II, 29; VJnApht 8; Syh (ProlPss) 1b.
ܟܗܢܝܐ V/VI JacSer B II, 633; PsNarsai I, 277. TR IV Macc 1:39; GregNaz Disc V, 94; Athan FestLett 13*; Sev (I) Vat 143, 93a.
ܟܘܒܝܐ TR Athan III, 155.
ܟܘܒܢܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 116; JacEd CHexaem 139a. TR JnRuf Pleroph (PO 8) 32; CyrAl HLk 104.
ܟܘܚܕܬܢܝܐ TR Didasc 163.
ܟܘܟܒܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc IV, 95.
ܟܘܟܒܢܝܐ TR GregNaz Iamboi, II, 3.
ܟܘܠܝܐ Post VII



VI JnPhilop Arbiter 1.24; Barḥad Schools (PO 4) 79; Sahdona I, 41; Probus (Hoffmann) 88; AthBal Introd 720; Dadisho (WS VII) Shelya 216b; IsNin I, 112. TR GregNaz Add 14549, 10b; Sev CollLett 188; CyrAl (LM 1970) 444; Athan IV, 166; PsDion Myron (Phokas) III.10.
ܟܘܪܗܢܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc V 41.
ܟܘܪܚܝܐ VII Shubhal 162.
ܟܘܪܟܡܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem. 81b.
ܟܘܪܢܝܐ VII JacEd. 1 Sam 23:15; CHexaem 82b.
ܟܘܬܡܢܝܐ Post VII
ܟܝܢܝܐ V JnApam Soul 38; Nars I, 11; JacSer B IV, 839; Philox CMtLk 7; IsNin I 15. TR Euseb Theoph II.16; Didasc 1; GregNaz Disc IV, 22-3; JnChr HJohn 213.
ܟܟܪܢܝܐ (VII) TR Apoc 16:21 Harkl.
ܟܠܒܝܐ TR GregNaz Iamboi I, 64.
ܟܠܒܢܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 51; Bab CEvag 5b; Barḥad HE (PO 9) 104.
ܟܠܢܝܐ - see under ܟܘܠܢܝܐ.
ܟܠܬܝܐ VI TR GregNaz Add 14549, 203a.
ܟܡܢܝܐ VII AthBal Introd 722 (‘having quality’). TR GregNaz Disc II, 63; AnaphSyr I, 118.
ܟܡܐܢܝܐ Post VII
ܟܢܫܝܐ (VI) TR GregNaz Add 14549, 182b.
ܟܢܫܢܝܐ Post VII
ܟܪܒܝܐ Post VII
ܟܪܘܟܝܐ (VI) TR PsArist, Peri Kosmou 138.
ܟܪܡܠܝܐ♱ TR MarkMonk Add 12175, 146a.
ܟܪܣܛܘܣܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܟܪܣܛܝܢܝܐ VII GeoAr Epp 13.2.2. TR Sev Hymns 131.
ܟܬܒܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 43b; GregCypr Vat 123, 73a. TR Sev Add 14599, 162b; JohnApht VSev (PO 2) 230/155; ZachR VSev 100; Sophron EpArcad 22.
ܟܬܘܒܝܐ VII Syh (Rahlfs, p.255).
ܟܬܝܒܝܐ (VI) TR GregNaz Vat 143, 24b2; Disc I, 19; Iamboi I, 156; JnChr Add 17152 59a2; ZachR VSev 50; Sev cJul II, 150; Nilus 223.
ܠܒܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 221a; Sahdona III, 27; IsNin 17; AMS VI, 564.
ܠܒܢܢܝܐ (VII) TR Apoc. 1:15 Harkl. (= -libanos).
ܠܗܓܝܐ (VI) TR PsArist Peri Kosmou 141.
ܠܗܓܢܝܐ VII SevSeb (ROC 1910) 231; JacEd CHexaem 80b.
ܠܘܟܝܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܠܚܘܕܝܐ V/VI Philox CPJ 145; DanSal CPs 110; Bab CEvag 181a; IsNin I, 221. TR GregNaz Disc IV, 90-1; ClemRom EpCor 21.
ܠܚܡܝܐ AMS VI, 615.
ܠܠܝܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 138; JnEph Lives 407; Bab Giw 466; Sahdona I, 11; TR GregNaz Disc I, 5; TDNJ 100; Syh Ps 90:5.
ܠܣܛܝܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Add 14549, 125a.
ܠܥܠܡܝܢܝܐ Post VII
ܠܩܘܒܠܝܐ VI Probus CEisag 27v.
ܠܩܝܫܝܐ Gen 30:42; James 5:7; Eph Nis 18:9, 29:21, Eccl 43:3-4.
ܠܫܢܝܐ Post VII
ܡܓܘܫܝܐ IV Eph cJul 1:10; AMS IV, 207.
ܡܕܒܪܝܐ I Macc 13:21; Acts 8:26; DanSal CPs51; JohnEph Lives 50, HE III 312; Bab CEvag 10a. TR PsZech HE II 95.
ܡܕܒܪܢܝܐ VII IsNin II, xxxiii.2. TR Sev cJul II, 105.
ܡܕܝܢܝܐ VI/VII Isho`yahb III Epp179. TR JnChr Add 12160 9b1; PsArist Peri Kosmou 147; CyrAl HLk 91; Prov 11:9 Syh.
ܡܕܥܝܐ VIII JohnDal Epp 25:4.
ܡܕܥܢܝܐ VI/VII Barḥad HE (PO 9) 104. TR LibHeracl 3.
ܡܕܪܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem. 63, 94.
ܡܘܣܝܩܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc IV, 94; Basil Lent (Cambr Add 3175, 9b).
ܡܘܣܝܩܪܝܐ (VI) TR GregNaz Add 14549, 155a; Syh (ProlPss) 1a.
ܡܘܫܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܡܘܬܝܐ VII Isho`yahb III Epp 194.
ܡܘܬܪܢܝܐ VII Dadisho` Shelya (WS VII) 234a.
ܡܙܘܓܢܝܐ (VI) GregNaz Add 18815, 13a.
ܡܚܙܝܬܢܝܐ VII IsNin III.5.17; JohnDal Epp 39:1.
ܡܛܪܝܐ Post VII
ܡܛܪܦܘܠܝܛܝܐ VII Isho`yahb III Epp 172.
ܡܝܝܐ Post VII
ܡܰܝܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 75b; GeoAr Epp 12.4.3. TR Athan FestLett 46*.
ܡܝܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܡܠܐܟܝܐ V/VI Philox CProlJohn, 179; DanSal CPs 13; Sahdona I, 110; IsNin I, 87. TR Evag Cent IV:38; GregNaz Disc IV, 14-15; PsDion DN IV.2; Sev Hom (PO 36, 503).
ܡܠܘܣܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 8, 369).
ܡܠܚܝܐ TR GregNaz Iamboi I, 67.
ܡܠܝܠܝܐ Post VII
ܡܠܟܘܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܡܠܟܝܐ III/IV I (3) Esr 1:51; AThomas (Hymn of Soul); DanSal CPs 13; JnEph HE 264. TR Didasc 103; JnChr Add 12160, 10b2.
ܡܠܟܝܙܕܩܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܡܠܦܝܐ TR JnApht VJnApht 2.
ܡܠܦܢܝܐ VII Isho`yahb III Epp 248. TR Sev cJul II, 125; CyrAl HLk 161; Syh (ProlPss) 2b.
ܡܠܬܢܝܐ VI/VII Hnana (PO 7) 56; Bab CEvag 53a; Isho`yahb III Epp 255; IsNin II xx 6.
ܡܢܝܢܝܐ♰ IV Ephr PR I, 115; Philox EpSen 11; DanSal CPs 51. TR Elias VJohnTella 63.
ܡܢܬܝܐ VI PaulPers (Land) 12; JnPhilop Arbiter I.27; Probus (Hoffmann) 88; AthanBal Introd 720; IsNin II vi 29; AMS II, 453. TR LibHeracl 162; GregNaz Disc IV, 52-3; JnChr Add 12160, 4a; Sev Add 14599, 169a.
ܡܢܬܢܝܐ VI ThomEd 52; JnPhenek 139; Dadisho‘ Shelya (WS VII) 216b; Isho`yahb III Epp 40; GregCypr Vat 123, 113a; IsNin I 89. TR Sev cJul II, 63.
ܡܣܟܢܝܐ V JnApam Soul, 70. TR Sev Hom (PO 26, 325).
ܡܥܒܕܢܝܐ VII IsNin II xvi 5. TR Sev cJul II, 287.
ܡܥܝܢܝܐ ‘Athanasius’, Baptismal address (OC. 1977), #1.
ܡܥܝܪܢܝܐ Post VII
ܡܥܠܢܝܐ TR Athan IV, 112.
ܡܥܠܬܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 26, 363) (‘eisagogic’).
ܡܨܥܝܐ IV Judith 9:5, IV Esr 11:4; Ephr Virg 29:1; JacSer A 100:21.
ܡܩܕܘܢܝܐ♰ Barḥad HE 320.
ܡܩܪܒܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 23, 65).
ܡܪܚܡܢܝܐ TR Sev cGramm III.2, 197.
ܡܪܚܩܢܝܐ (VII) TR Mt 5:31 Harkl.
ܡܪܝܕܝܐ (V) TR Basil CHexaem 160.



V/VI JacSer B V, 167; Epp 106; Philox TrTres 95, CProlJohn 180; DanSal CPs 18; PsNars I, 278; JnEph HE III 243; IsNin I, 311; SynodOr 116. TR Ephes II, 2; JnChr Add 12160, 45b2; GregNaz (I& II) Disc V, 40; CyrAl Epp 6; Arist Categ 3:6; Athan I, 11; II, 49; III, 106.
ܡܪܩܝܘܢܝܐ♰ IV Ephr PR II 51; JnPhenek 135.
ܡܫܝܚܝܐ IV II Macc 1:10; Aphr 20:10; 23:3; Ephr cHaer 56:6, Nis 31:35, SDN 32; JacSer Epp 247; Bab Giw 416. TR TitBostra 133.
ܡܫܝܢܝܐ (VI) TR Sev cJul III, 42.
ܡܫܟܝܐ Post VII
ܡܫܟܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 8, 322).
ܡܫܡܫܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev SelLett 43.
ܡܬܘܡܝܐ V Nars PP I, 591; JacSer B II, 210; Philox TrTres 34; IsNin I, 193; SynodOr 51. TR GregNaz Disc IV, 128-9.
ܡܬܠܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 38, 278).
ܡܬܠܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 20, 371).
ܡܬܡܛܝܩܝܐ VII SevSeb Add 17156 9b.
ܡܬܪܓܡܢܝܐ VII Dadisho`, CAbIs XI.17 (‘homiletic’).
ܢܒܝܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 11; Bab CEvag 119a; Barḥad HE (PO 9) 106; Hnana (PO 7) 55. TR Didasc 50; GregNaz Disc IV, 394-5; Sev cJul II, 150; Athan III, 132, IV 157; FestLett 10*.
ܢܒܪܫܢܝܐ Post VII
ܢܗܪܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 324b (‘Mesopotamian’); Encheir 236. TR Sev cJul II, 120; CyrAl. HLk 159.
ܢܘܓܗܝܐ III/IV Mark 13:35 Sinaiticus.
ܢܘܗܪܢܝܐ V Nars II, 320; DanSal CPs 77; Bab CEvag 107b. TR Sev Hom (PO 29, 166); TDNJ 40.
ܢܘܚܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܢܘܟܪܝܐ Ps 137:4; II Macc 10:24; I Cor 14:21; Ephr cHaer 30:6; JacSer Epp 119; Philox TrTres266; CyrEd 147. TR Canons 81; PsZach HE I, 118; Sev cGramm III.2, 146; DocMon 24.
ܢܘܪܝܐ (VII) TR PsNonnus Invect I.46.
ܢܘܪܢܝܐ V Nars Fr I:298; JacSer B II, 602; DanSal CPs 77; GeoAr Epp 6.1.11. TR CyrAl (LM 1970) 439; Sev cJul II 148; Sophron EpArcad 23.
ܢܘܫܩܬܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hymns 103.
ܢܚܫܝܐ VI/VII Bab LdU 119; GeoAr Epp 10.7.4.
ܢܝܣܢܝܐ VI CyrEd 109; GabrQat NV 366; JacEd CHexaem 132a; IsNin I, 519; WS VII 293a. TR GregNaz Add 14549, 188a.
ܢܡܘܣܝܐ Tobit 2:13; JnApam DreiTr 19; Nars I, 70; JacSer B II, 719; Philox TrTres 35, CMtLk 8; SynodOr 57; Bab CEvagr 3b. TR IV Macc 5:35; TitBostra 176; TheodMops CatHom 145; Ephes II 74; GregNaz Disc IV, 56-7; JnChr Add 14567, 98a.
ܢܡܪܝܐ TR IV Macc 9:28.
ܢܣܛܘܪܝܢܝܐ♰ VII JnSed B.6.27. TR Sev Add 14599, 175b.
ܢܦܫܝܐ VI/VII Bab LdU 85.
ܢܦܫܢܝܐ I Cor 15:44; JnApam Soul, 9; Nars II, 10; JacSer B V, 158; Philox CMtLk 66; IsNin I, 6; TR IV Macc 1:32; TheodMops CatHom 188; JnChr HJohn 211.
ܢܨܒܬܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 333b.
ܢܩܒܝܐ V/VI Philox Disc 429; Bab CEvag 225b. TR Sev Vat 143, 50a2.
ܢܩܒܢܝܐ V/VI Philox Disc 429 (variant reading).
ܢܩܒܬܢܝܐ VII AthanBal Introd 729; JacEd CHexaem 345b. TR Sev Hom (PO 4, 87).
ܢܫܝܐ (V/VI) TR Canons 54; GregNaz (I) Add.17146, 94b; PsCallisthenes 100; Sev Hom (PO 16, 813).
ܢܫܡܬܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 141a.
ܣܐܡܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 81.
ܣܒܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc IV, 30; Sev Hom (PO 12, 92).
ܣܒܠܝܢܝܐ♱ VII PeterKall II 155.
ܣܒܬܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc IV, 31.
ܣܒܬܢܝܐ VII JacEd (JSacrLit 1865) 23. TR Sev Hom (PO 37, 68).
ܣܓܝܐܢܝܐ VI JnPhilop Arbiter V.12; JacEd CHexaem 283b. TR Sev Hom (PO 12, 22); CyrAl Thes (Add 12135, 133b1); Sophron EpArcad 47.
ܣܓܘܠܝܐ VII SevSeb ROC 1929/30 359. TR PsNonnus Invect II:1.
ܣܕܘܡܝܐ ♰ V Bab CEvag 216.
ܣܗܕܘܢܝܐ♰ VII Isho‘yahb III Epp 198.
ܣܗܕܝܐ V/VI JacSer Paris syr 235, 166a; Isho`yahb III Epp. 275; AMS VI, 369 (Eusebius of Samosata) 369. TR JnRuf VPetIb 68; Sev cJul II,128.
ܣܗܪܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 35.
ܣܗܪܢܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Iamboi I, 46; Sev Hom (PO 29, 74).
ܣܘܘܚܝܐ VII ShemTayb (WS VII) 284a.
ܣܘܟܝܐ TR Evag (Frankenberg) 55b.
ܣܘܟܢܝܐ (VI) TR Arist Categ. [(Georr) 274 = King] 13
ܣܘܠܘܓܝܣܛܝܩܝܐ VII SevSeb Scholia 702; AthBal Introd 719.
ܣܘܡܛܝܐ Post VII
ܣܘܡܩܪܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 51.
ܣܘܢܗܕܝܩܝܐ VI/VII Barḥad HE (PO 9) 140; Isho`yahb III Epp. 209; SynodOr 130. TR Sev SelLett 98.
ܣܘܢܩܠܝܛܝܩܝܐ TR ZachR VSev 112; AMS VI, 358.
ܣܘܢܩܢܝܐ (VII) TR Mt 6:11 Harkl.
ܣܘܣܛܛܝܩܝܐ Synodicon I, 59.
ܣܘܥܪܢܝܐ VI JnPhilop Arbiter V.18; Hnana (PO 7) 56; Bab CEvag 218b; Sahdona II, 9; IsNin I 502; II x 25; Dadisho‘ CAbIs XI.17. TR MarkMonk 12175, 155a; GregNaz I (Add 17146), 43b, Disc IV, 80.
ܣܘܦܣܛܝܐ (VI) TR GregNaz. I (Add. 18815) 11a; Sev SelLett 387.
ܣܘܦܣܛܝܩܝܐ VII SevSeb Add 14660, 55a. TR Sev Hom (PO 23, 145); ZachR VSev 16.
ܣܚܘܦܝܐ VII Isho‘yahb III Epp 263.
ܣܛܢܝܐ VI JacSer A 147:131 (only); CyrEd 113; DanSal CPs 105; Bab CEvag 195b; Barḥad HE 185; IsNin II xvii 6; AMS III 642. TR GregNaz Vat 142 100b1; Disc II, 57; JnChr Add. 14567, 191a; Sev cJul II, 55; Pachom Asket Add 12175, 9a.
ܣܛܦܢܘܣܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܣܛܪܝܐ Post VII
ܣܛܪܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 83b (‘transverse’).
ܣܝܡܝܘܢܝܐ VI/VII GabrQat NV 146.
ܣܝܢܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܣܟܘܠܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܣܟܢܝܐ VI PaulPers (Land) 17.
ܣܡܠܝܐ (VII) TR 2 Cor 6:7 Harkl; GregNaz Add 14549, 35a; Sev Hom (PO 20, 392).
ܣܡܠܬܢܝܐ VII IsNin I, 88; SynodOr 166.
ܣܡܩܪܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 38, 282).
ܣܥܘܪܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 25, 671); ZachR VSev 55.
ܣܥܪܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 79b; TR Sev Hom (PO 26, 316).
ܣܦܘܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܣܦܝܠܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 76b.
ܣܦܪܢܝܐ (VII) TR Dan. 1:17 Syh.
ܣܩܘܒܠܝܐ V JnApam Soul 1; Nars II, 2215; JacSer A 41:28; Philox CProlJohn 26; IsNin I 406. TR GregNaz Disc IV, 104-5.
ܣܩܪܝܘܛܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܣܪܘܚܝܐ VI JnEph Lives 116.
ܣܪܦܝܐ (VIII) TR Sophron EpArcad 21.
ܣܬܘܝܐ IV Ephr Eccl 41:14; MartHabbib (Burkitt) 41; ChronJoshStyl 268; JnEph Lives 232; GabrQat NV 366. TR PsArist Peri Kosmou 143; Prov 27:15 Syh.
ܥܐܕܢܝܐ (VI) TR GregNaz (I) Add. 17146, 89b; Sev cJul II, 157; Hom (PO 12, 10); Athan FestLett 3*; PetKall cDamian III.xix.6.
ܥܒܕܝܐ VII IsNin II xiv 34.
ܥܒܕܢܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc IV, 270-1; Sev Hom (PO 12, 55); CyrAl. HLk 284; Athan IV, 38.
ܥܕܝܝܐ VI/VII Bab Giw 475.
ܥܕܳܢܝܐ VII IsNin II xxi 8 (‘temporal’).
ܥܕܶܢܝܐ V/VI JacSer (MUSJ 26:1, 34), A 158:22 (‘Eden-like’).
ܥܕܬܢܝܐ V/VI JnApam Add 18814, 92b; JacSer A 4:184 (only); Philox TrTres 155; DanSal CPs 19; PsNars I, 275; JnEph HE III 4; JnPhenek; GabrQat NV 152; IsNin I 263; SynodOr 17. TR TheodMops CatHom WS VI 154; Canons 14; Ephes II 64; GregThaum AnSyr 42; Athan II, 31; Sev Jul I, 114.
ܥܗܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 97a. TR Sev Hom (PO 35, 366).
ܥܘܒܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab LdU 229. [but perhaps read ḥubanaya]
ܥܘܡܩܝܐ (V) TR Basil CHexaem 58.
ܥܘܪܒܢܝܐ Post VII
ܥܘܪܠܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 130a.
ܥܝܕܢܝܐ VI CyrEd 115; Sahdona II, 58; GregCypr Vat 123, 79a.
ܥܝܘܩܬܢܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Add 14549, 104a.
ܥܠܝܡܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 19a. TR GregNaz I (Add 17146, 90a); Sev Hom (PO 4, 8); CyrAl HLk 171.
ܥܠܝܬܢܝܐ post VII (‘pertaining to the Upper Room’).
ܥܠܡܝܐ VI17 JnEph Lives (PO 17:1), 161; Isho‘yahb III Epp 66. TR Euseb Theophania V.2; Sev Hom (PO 26, 470).
ܥܠܡܝܢܝܐ V/VI PsEphrem apud JacSer B II, 889. TR Didasc 10; Athan FestLett 46*.
ܥܠܡܢܝܐ Hebr 9:1; JnApam Soul 85; Nars PP I, 321; JacSer II, 774; Philox EpSen 85; SynodOr 102. TR TheodMops CatHom 174; Canons 113; Evag Cent I.78; JnChr HJohn 91; Nilus 15.
ܥܡܕܝܐ VII Bab CEvag 32.
ܥܡܛܢܝܐ (VII) TR Prov 7:9 Syh.
ܥܡܠܝܐ (VI) TR Sev cJul I, 218.
ܥܡܠܩܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܥܡܡܝܐ (VII) TR Mt 5:47, 18:17 Harkl.; Sev Hom (PO 25, 697).
ܥܢܘܝܐ VI/VII Bab Giw 430. TR Sev Hom (PO 25, 667).
ܥܢܝܢܝܐ Post VII
ܥܢܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 164b; IsNin I, 473. TR GregNys Ep 38, 44.
ܥܢܦܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 26, 316).
ܥܣܒܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 80b.
ܥܦܪܢܝܐ V Nars I, 368; Philox CProlJohn 50. TR GregNaz Add.14549, 203b; JnChr HJohn 221.
ܥܨܝܝܐ ?VII PsClemRom 140; Isho`yahb III Epp 253; SynodOr 190.
ܥܨܝܢܝܐ VI CyrEd 37; IsNin I, 207.
ܥܩܒܢܝܐ VII Sahdona III, 135.
ܥܪܘܩܝܐ (VI) TR GregNaz.(I) Add 18815, 25b; Sev Hom (PO 16, 841).
ܥܪܛܠܝܐ I Cor 15:37; Ephr CGen II.26; JacSer B II, 698; IsAnt (Bedjan) 620; IsNin III 6 30. TR Evag Cent I 65; Sev Hom (PO 35, 351); Athan III, 152; JohnApht VSev 136.
ܥܪܝܩܝܐ V/VI JacSer B IV, 381.
ܥܪܦܠܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 196a. TR Sev Hom (PO 37, 64).
ܥܪܨܝܐ VII Dadisho`, Shelya (WS VII) 229b. TR Sev cJul II, 205.
ܦܐܪܐܕܝܓܡܛܝܩܝܐ VII AthanBal Introd 736.
ܦܐܪܪܝܣܝܐ Post VII
ܦܐܪܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 5; Diyarb CGen 16; SynodOr 131.
ܦܐܪܢܝܐ TR ClemRom I Cor 42.
ܦܓܪܝܐ TR Sev cGramm I-II, 287.
ܦܓܪܢܝܐ Macc 3:1; Heb 7:16; Ephr Res 3:15; CDiat VI.13; JnApam Soul 13; Nars I, 10; JacSer B IV 229; Philox CMtLk 80; IsNin I, 40. TR JnChr HJohn 6.
ܦܕܓܘܓܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 35, 320).
ܦܘܠܘܣܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܦܘܣܝܣܝܐ♰ VI/VII Bab LdU 11.
ܦܘܠܝܛܝܩܝܐ (VII) TR Sev SelLett 11.
ܦܘܩܕܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 3a.
ܦܘܫܟܝܐ TR ZachR VSev 106.
ܦܘܬܩܝܐ Lk 10:35; Sahdona 1, 72; AMS VI, 489.
ܦܚܪܝܐ (VII) TR Mt 27:7 Harkl; Is 45:9 Syh.
ܦܛܪܘܣܝܐ♰ VI/VII Bab LdU 91, Giw 543; Sahdona II, 65.
ܦܛܪܝܪܟܝܐ VII Isho`yahb III Epp 72; SynodOr 599. TR Sev SelLett 18.
ܦܝܠܘܣܦܝܐ V/VI Philox TrTres 99; Isho`yahb III Epp. 177. TR GregNaz Disc III, 35; JnChr Add 12160, 52a1; Pitra AnSac 172.
ܦܝܠܝܐ VII TR Ezek 27:13 Syh.
ܦܝܢܚܣܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܦܝܣܝܩܝܐ IV/V TR Euseb Theoph 50.
ܦܝܣܟܝܐ AMS II, 249; JnPhilop Arbiter IV.4.
ܦܠܐܬܢܝܐ VI SergResh IntrodPsDion 117; Bab CEvag 79a; Dadisho‘ CAbIs XI.17; GregCyp Vat 123, 115a; IsNin II xli 2. TR Evag Cent IV 22; Epp 183a2; GregNys Vat 106, 91b; PsDion DN I.6, 8.
ܦܠܚܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 12, 82); Pitra AnSac 59.
ܦܢܘܡܛܝܩܝܐ Post VII
ܦܢܛܣܝܝܐ V JnApam Epp 14.
ܦܣܝܩܝܐ VI/VII GabrQat NV 146; SynodOr 217; Bab CEvag 129b.
ܦܩܚܝܐ VII IsNin II xxxv 3.
ܦܩܥܬܝܐ (VII) TR Josh 11:16 Syh; Lk 6:17 Harkl (mg).
ܦܪܕܝܣܢܝܐ Post VII
ܦܪܘܚܝܐ VII GeoAr Epp 11.7.2.
ܦܪܘܣܕܝܪܝܣܡܢܝܐ VI Probus CEisag 7b.
ܦܪܘܩܝܐ V/VI JnApam 18814, 91a; Philox CProlJohn 186; DanSal CPs 118; Bab CEvag 1b. TR GregNaz Disc IV, 388-9; JnChr Add 14567, 61a; Sev Add 14599, 192b; Athan I, 36; III, 89.
ܦܪܘܫܝܐ SynodOr 70.
ܦܪܙܠܝܐ TR GregNaz Add 14549, 147b; Dan 7:19 Syh.
ܦܪܝܫܝܐ VII18 Sahdona III, 130.
ܦܪܢܘܫܝܐ IV LibGrad 21:5.
ܦܪܥܘܢܝܐ♰ VI/VII Bab Giw 467; JnSed D.2.4; Dadisho‘ CAbIs XIII.3. TR LibHeracl 496.
ܦܪܨܘܦܝܐ VI/VII Bab LdU 102; SynodOr 195. TR CyrAl Thes (Add 12135, 146a1); LibHeracl 229; Sophron EpArcad 14.
ܦܪܩܠܝܛܝܐ Post VII
ܦܬܟܪܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 27a. TR PsNonnus Invect I:43; ZachR VSev 27.
ܨܒܝܢܝܐ V Nars I, 157; JacSer A 12:19, 39:339 (only); Philox EpSen 46; CyrEd 68; DanSal CPs 3; JnEph Lives 462; Ahudemmeh 114; IsNin I, 34. TR Evag Cent IV:12; GregNaz Disc IV, 140-1; JnChr Add 14567, 60b; PsDion DN IX.10; Pachom Asket 12175, 12b; Athan IV, 32.
ܨܗܝܘܢܝܐ♰ VI/VII GabrQat Or. 3336, 230a.
ܨܘܪܢܝܐ Post VII
ܨܘܪܬܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem. 181b.
ܨܚܘܝܐ Post VII
ܨܚܘܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 35, 366).
ܨܝܕܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 12, 99).
ܨܠܘܬܢܝܐ VHilaria (Wensinck) 12.
ܨܠܝܒܝܐ Post VII
ܨܠܝܒܢܝܐ Post VII
ܨܡܘܚܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܨܦܪܝܐ VII Apoc 2:28 Harkl; DanSal CPs 5; JacEd. 2 Sam 23:4. TR Hos 11:3 Syh; GregNaz Disc I, 175; Athan IV, 82; Sev Hymns 387; TDNJ 50.
ܨܦܪܢܝܐ Athan IV, 118.
ܩܒܥܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 37, 124).
ܩܒܪܢܝܐ TR GregNaz Iamboi I, 164.
ܩܕܝܡܝܐ IV Ephr Par 10:11, cJul 1:16, cHaer 1:13; JnApam Epp 32; JacSer Epp 199; Isho`yahb III Epp 101.
ܩܘܡܝܕܝܐ (VII) TR PsNonnus Invect. I.79.
ܩܘܡܝܩܝܐ (VII) TR PsNonnus Invect. I.90.
ܩܘܢܝܩܝܐ VI TR Canons 109; GregThaum AnSyr 63.
ܩـ(ܘ)ܢܟܝܐ VI VEphr 4B; AMS I 498.
ܩܘܪܒܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hymns (PO 7, 690).
ܩܘܪܝܝܐ V/VI Philox EpSen 93; IsNin II xv 9; GeoAr Epp 7.4.7. TR Euseb Theoph III.23; Sev Hom (PO 26, 434).
ܩܘܫܬܢܝܐ VI/VII Ishai (PO 7, 17); Bab CEvag 91; Giw 430; Sahdona I, 44.
ܩܛܐܦܐܛܝܩܝܐ VII AthanBal Introd 745.
ܩܛܘܠܝܐ (VI) TR Sev cJul II, 250; Athan III, 127; GregNaz Iamboi I, 27.
ܩܛܝܪܝܐ V/VI Philox, TractDecem (PO 39, 620); DanSal CPs 9; Sahdona II, 89; AthanBal Introd 738; IsNin I 191. TR GregNaz Disc IV, 72-3; JnChr Add 14567, 102b; Sev Add 14599, 116b; Wis 19:7 Syh.
ܩܛܝܓܘܪܝܩܝܐ VII SevSeb Add 17156, 7b; AthanBal Introd 734.
ܩܛܝܪܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 25, 71).
ܩܝܛܝܐ IV Ephr Par-suppl 13; ChronJoshStyl 30; GabrQat NV 366. TR PsArist Peri Kosmou 143.
ܩܰܝܢܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܩܝܣܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem. 134a. TR GregNys Vat 106, 168b.
ܩܠܝܐ VII Dadisho` Shelya (Bedjan) 603.
ܩܠܝܪܝܩܝܐ TR GregNaz Iamboi II, 42.
ܩܠܢܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc IV, 89; Iamboi I, 2.
ܩܢܘܒܝܐ VII Dadisho`, Shelya (WS VII) 234.
ܩܢܘܡܝܐ V/VI Philox TrTres 51; DanSal CPs 101; JnPhilop Arbiter III.6; Aḥudemmeh 103; Barḥad HE 251 IsNin I, 218. TR Evag Cent II:11; Ephes II 92; PsDion DN IV.31; Sev Hom (PO 12, 34); LibHeracl 137.
ܩܢܘܢܝܐ VI JnEph HE 13; Isho’yahb II, 5; JnPhenek 153; Isho`yahb III Epp 67; IsNin I, 178; SynodOr 70. TR Canons 23; Ephes II 60; Athan FestLett 26*; Sev SelLett 49.
ܩܢܘܣܝܐ♱ TR GregNaz Disc IV, 100.
ܩܢܝܝܐ Post VII
ܩܢܟܝܐ see above (qwnky’).
ܩܢܬܠܝܐ (VII) TR Sev SelLett 299.
ܩܦܝܠܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Add 14549, 68a; CyrAl HLk 195.
ܩܨܘܡܝܐ VI Philox EpSen 89. TR GregNaz Add 14549, 186b; PsNonnus Epiph 12.
ܩܨܢܝܐ Post VII
ܩܪܒܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 23, 7); Jer 21:4 Syh.
ܩܪܒܬܢܝܐ (VI) TR Sev Vat 143, 41a2.
ܩܪܛܝܐ♱ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc IV, 100.
ܩܪܛܝܣܝܐ Post VII
ܩܪܝܬܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 79b; Sev Hom (PO 26, 316).
ܩܪܣܛܠܘܣܝܐ VII WS VII 267b.
ܩܪܩܘܪܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Add 14549, 180b.
ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܐ VII Isho`yahb III, Epp 209; VMarAba 210; SynodOr 65.
ܪܐܙܢܝܐ - see under alaph
ܪܒܢܝܐ SynodOr 191.
ܪܒܝܨܝܐ VI/VII Bab LdU 102.
ܪܓܘܙܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 13a.
ܪܓܠܝܐ Judith 2:5; I Macc 3:39; II Macc 10:31; JoshStylChron 51. TR Mt 14:13 Harkl (mg).
ܪܓܠܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 26, 330).
ܪܓܫܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 151b.
ܪܓܬܝܐ VII Dadisho`, CAbIs IX.4.
ܪܓܬܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvag 14a; Sahdona IV.80.
ܪܗܒܘܢܝܐ VII Dadisho`, CAbIs I.7; Shelya (WS VII) 234b.
ܪܗܛܪܝܐ TR ZachR VSev 91.
ܪܘܓܙܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 25, 658).
ܪܘܚܢܝܐ I Cor 15:44; Ephr CGen II.6; JnApam Soul 89; Nars I, 163; JacSer B I, 571; Philox CMtLk 50.
ܪܘܚܩܕܫܢܝܐ Post VII
ܪܘܫܡܢܝܐ (VI) TR Sev Hom (I) Add 14599, 139b.
ܪܚܘܡܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܪܚܝܝܐ (VII) TR Mk 9:42 Harkl.
ܪܚܡܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc III, 17; Sophron EpArcad 30.
ܪܝܛܘܪܝܩܝܐ VI Probus CEisag 24a.
ܪܝܫ ܓܘܢܝܝܐ (VII) TR Job 38:6 Syh.
ܪܝܫ ܟܗܢܝܐ (VII) TR Acts 4:6 Harkl; GregNaz Disc IV, 14-5; Sev SelLett 213.
ܪܝܫܝܐ Ps 45:8; JnApam Epp 116; JacSer B I, 293; Philox TrTres 192. TR GregNaz Disc IV, 128; Evag Cent I 27; JnChr HJohn 74.
ܪܝܫܢܝܐ VII Isho`yahb III, Epp 160. TR GregNaz Disc IV, 391; Sev Hom (PO 12, 24).
ܪܡܙܢܝܐ TR Sev Philaleth. 155.
ܪܡܟܝܐ (VII) TR GregNaz Disc IV, 90-1.
ܪܡܫܝܐ Mk 13:35 S; JnEph Lives 566; Shubhal 46; Dadisho (WS VII) Shelya 240a; IsNin I 351. TR PsClemRom 42; Basil CHexaem 58.
ܪܥܝܝܐ VII Isho`yahb III Epp 188. TR GregNaz Disc IV, 297; Sev Hom (PO 8, 215); CyrAl HLk 156.
ܪܥܝܢܝܐ VI/VII Hnana (PO 7) 56; Bab CEvag 218b; IsNin I, 87; II xix 9; III 13, 19. TR Porph Eisag 325.
ܪܥܡܝܐ Post VII
ܪܥܡܢܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 104.
ܪܦܦܝܐ VII IsNin II xx 8; Dadisho‘ Shelya (WS VII) 216a.
ܫܐܕܢܝܐ VI Philox CProlJohn 5; DanSal CPs 11; JnEph HE III 126; VAhudemmeh 34; Dadisho‘ (WS VII) Shelya 217a; IsNin I, 182. TR Didasc 29; Evag Cent III:50; Epp 162a; Athan I, 17; Sev Add 14599, 159b; ZachR VSev 30.
ܫܐܘܠܝܐ♰ VI/VII Bab CEvag 191b.
ܫܐܪܝܐ V/VI JacSer A 41:91; AbrLipeh CLiturg 172.
ܫܒܗܪܢܝܐ VII Isho`yahb III Epp 187.
ܫܒܝܠܝܐ VI JnEph Lives 616.
ܫܒܠܢܝܐ VII SevSeb ROC 1929/30, 376.
ܫܒܪܝܐ VI CyrEd 167; DanSal CPs 68; Bab LdU 27. TR CyrAl HLk 256.
ܫܒܪܢܝܐ (VII) TR CyrAl HLk 85; Sev Hom (PO 8, 282).
ܫܒܬܝܐ VI JohnEph Lives 62; Bab CEvag 88b.
ܫܓܘܫܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܫܘܒܚܢܝܐ Post VII
ܫܘܚܝܐ TR Athan FestLett 37*.
ܫܘܚܬܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab CEvagr 171a; Dadisho‘ CAbIs VII.11.
ܫܘܚܢܢܝܐ Post VII
ܫܘܠܛܢܝܐ VII Isho`yahb III Epp 166.
ܫܘܡܠܝܢܝܐ Post VII
ܫܘܥܝܬܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 25, 130).
ܫܘܩܝܐ TR JnRuf VPetIb 113.
ܫܘܬܦܝܐ VII AthanBal Introd 724.
ܫܝܘܠܝܐ♰ Post VII
ܫܝܚܝܐ TR Athan FestLett 37*.
ܫܝܠܘܢܝܐ♰ V Nars I, 42.
ܫܝܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 12, 106); JacEd I Sam 9:8.
ܫܝܫܠܢܝܐ (VII) TR Exod 28:23 Syh.
ܫܝܬܢܝܐ VI/VII GabrQat NV 312; JnPhenek 12; Bab Giw 505; SynodOr 200; AMari 24; AMS II, 632.
ܫܠܗܒܝܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܫܠܘܝܐ VII Sahdona IV, 74.
ܫܠܝܚܝܐ V/VI JacSer Epp 95; Philox TrTres 71, Disc. 620; DanSal CPs 24; JnEph HE III 88; JnPhenek 139; VAhudemmeh 31. TR TheodMop CatHom 236; Canons 4; Ephes II 90; GregNaz Disc IV, 394-5; JnChr Add 12160, 101a2; Sev Add 14599, 171b; CyrAl Epp 5; Athan II, 48; FestLett 18*; CyrAl CollLett 5.
ܫܠܝܡܘܢܝܐ♰ VI/VII Bab CEvag 414; JohnPhenek 150.
ܫܡܝܢܝܐ V Nars Fr I, 486.19
ܫܡܗܝܐ V/VI Isho`yahb III Epp 107.
ܫܡܫܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 117; Bab CEvag 219b. TR GregNys Vat 106, 131b.
ܫܡܫܢܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 93; Bab CEvag 123b; JacEd CHexaem 160a; GregCypr Vat 123, 25b; GeoAr Epp 12.4.2. TR GregNaz (I) Add 17146, 78a; Disc IV, 400-1; Sev Vat 143, 71a1; CyrAl HLk 192.
ܫܢܬܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 131b; VJohnColob (ROC 1912) 353; TR Epiph W&M 76d; Sev Hom (PO 38, 426).
ܫܥܝܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 8, 215).
ܫܥܠܝܐ Post VII
ܫܳܥܢܝܐ VII SevSeb Astrolabe, JAs IX.13 (1899) ‘hourly’.
ܫܦܪܝܐ (VII) TR TDNJ 102.
ܫܩܝܦܝܐ VII GeoAr Epp 1.1.3.
ܫܪܒܬܢܝܐ (VII) TR Sev Hom (PO 12, 140).
ܫܪܘܝܐ IV Ephr Nat 4:123, Nis 39:16; JacSer B V, 19; DanSal CPs 68; IsNin II xxii 1. TR JnChr Add 12142, 164a2; Athan III, 31.
ܫܫܠܝܐ VII Ex 28:23 Syh.
ܫܬܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 147b (‘annual’); Sev Hom (PO 38, 426).
ܫܬܩܢܝܐ Post VII
ܬ(ܐ)ܒܝܠܝܐ V Nars (JAsiat 1899), 468; JacSer Epp106; Philox EpSen 21; IsNin II xiv 35; SynodOr 113. TR Ephes II 10; Athan II, 17; Sev cJul II, 79; CyrAl CollLett 3.
ܬܐܓܘܪܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܬ(ܐ)ܕܐܢܝܐ VII JacEd CHexaem 132a; GeoAr Epp 12.2.12.
ܬܐܘܠܘܓܝܣܝܐ Post VII
ܬܐܘܪܝܛܝܩܝܐ Post VII


VII TR ClemRom 1 Cor (Bensly), 18.
ܬܐـܛܪܝܐ (VI) TR GregNaz (I) Add 18815, 24b.
ܬܒܘܢܝܐ VI/VII Bab Giw 538.
ܬܒܘܪܝܐ♱ VI/VII GabrQat Or 3336, 230a.
ܬܒܢܝܐ (VI) TR GregNaz. (I) Add 17146, 95b.
ܬܕܐܢܝܐ VII see under ܬܐܕܐܢܝܐ
ܬܗܘܡܝܐ Post VII
ܬܘܕܝܬܢܝܐ Post VII
ܬܘܗܒܘܗܢܝܐ Post VII
ܬܘܥܠܢܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 22.
ܬܚܬܝܐ IV Ephr Virg 24:3, Nat 27:20; CDiat XXI.12; JacSer Epp 56; JnEph Lives (PO 17, 184(. TR Lam 3:55 Syh.
ܬܚܬܢܝܐ Ahudemmeh (Chabot) 55.
ܬܝܡܢܝܐ VI DanSal CPs 124.
ܬܟܫܦܝܐ (VI) TR PsArist Peri Kosmou 157.
ܬܠܓܢܝܐ (VI) TR Sev Vat 143, 71a1; Hom (PO 26, 266).
ܬܠܝܬܝܐ IV ‘intermediary’ Ephr PR I, 131.
ܬܡܢܝܐ Post VII
ܬܢܢܝܐ VII SevSeb (ROC 1910) 231; AMS VI 611. TR PsArist Peri Kosmou 141; AMS VI 611.
ܬܥܝܫܝܐ Post VII
ܬܦܢܝܩܝܐ VI Probus (Hoffmann) 78.
ܬܩܘܥܝܐ♰ VII Bab CEvag 64. TR Evag Cent I:23.
ܬܪܥܝܐ AMS I, 368.
ܬܪܥܝܬܢܝܐ VII AMS I, 469. TR Sev Hom (PO 26, 415); Sophron EpArcad 30.
ܬܫܒܘܚܬܢܝܐ TR Sev cNephal. 5.
ܬܫܡܫܬܝܐ Canons of Marutha 36 (=Psaltai).
ܬܫܥܝܬܢܝܐ VII Dadisho` CAbIs VII.14; JacEd CHexaem 106a; AMS I, 469.



VII GabrQat NV 366; Isho`yahb III Epp. 254; ShemTayb (WS VII) 293a; JacEd CHexaem TR ClemRom EpCor 18.

Chronological Distribution

These adjectival forms can be distributed in chronological sequence as follows (underlined forms would seem to be particularly significant for the purpose of suggesting dates for undated texts):

List 6: first attested in Syriac authors in 7th century

ܐܓܘܪܣܝܐ ܘܡܢܝܐ ܐܠܘܨܝܐ ܐܢܫܢܝܐ ܐܣܘܛܝܐ ܐܣܛܘܟܣܝܐ ܐܣܛܘܢܝܐ ܐܣܦܘܓܝܐ ܐܣܦܝܣܝܐ ܐܦܘܕܝܩܛܝܩܝܐ ܐܦܝܬܪܘܢܝܐ ܐܬܪܢܝܐ ܒܪܒܣܬܪܝܐ ܒܪܘܝܢܝܐ ܒܪܝܫܝܬܝܐ ܓܐܘܡܛܪܝܩܝܐ ܓܓܪܢܝܐ ܓܘܦܣܢܝܐ ܓܝܢܕܢܝܐ ܕܐܒܝܐ ܕܗܒܝܐ ܕܗܒܢܝܐ ܕܟܪܢܝܐ ܕܡܝܝܐ ܕܡܢܝܐ ܕܩܢܢܝܐ ܗܘܢܢܝܐ ܗܦܩܛܝܩܝܐ ܙܩܝܦܝܐ ܚܙܝܪܝܐ ܚܛܘܦܝܐ ܚܠܒܢܝܐ ܚܠܢܝܐ ܚܡܳܪܝܐ ܚܣܢܝܐ ܛܘܒܬܢܝܐ ܛܝܒܘܬܢܝܐ ܛܝܢܝܐ ܛܰܠܢܝܐ ܛܪܘܢܝܐ ܛܪܢܝܐ ܝܒܫܢܝܐ ܝܘܒܠܢܝܐ ܝܘܠܦܢܝܐ ܝܡܝܐ ܝܬܢܝܐ ܟܐܦܢܝܐ ܟܪܘܚܝܐ ܟܘܪܟܡܢܝܐ ܟܡܢܝܐ ܟܪܣܛܝܢܝܐ ܠܗܓܢܝܐ ܡܕܒܪܢܝܐ ܡܘܬܝܐ ܡܘܬܪܢܝܐ ܚܙܝܬܢܝܐ ܡܛܪܦܘܠܝܛܝܐ ܡܠܦܢܝܐ ܡܥܒܕܢܝܐ ܡܬܡܛܝܩܝܐ ܡܬܪܓܡܢܝܐ ܢܗܪܝܐ ܢܨܒܬܢܝܐ ܢܩܒܬܢܝܐ ܣܒܬܢܝܐ ܣܓܘܠܝܐ ܣܘܘܚܝܐ ܣܚܘܦܝܐ ܣܛܪܢܝܐ ܣܡܠܬܢܝܐ ܣܦܝܠܝܐ ܥܒܕܝܐ ܥܕܳܢܝܐ ܥܗܢܝܐ ܥܡܕܝܐ ܥܣܒܢܝܐ ܥܩܒܢܝܐ ܥܪܝܨܝܐ ܦܐܪܐܕܝܓܡܛܝܩܝܐ ܦܛܪܝܪܟܝܐ ܦܩܚܝܐ ܦܪܘܚܝܐ ܨܘܪܬܢܝܐ ܨܦܪܝܐ ܩܐܛܐܦܛܝܩܝܐ ܩܛܝܓܘܪܝܩܝܐ ܩܝܣܘܒܢܝܐ ܩܠܝܐ ܩܢܘܒܝܐ ܩܪܣܛܠܘܣܝܐ ܩܪܝܬܢܝܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܐ ܪܓܬܝܐ ܪܗܒܘܢܝܐ ܪܝܫܢܝܐ ܪܥܝܝܐ ܪܦܦܝܐ ܫܒܗܪܢܝܐ ܫܒܠܢܝܐ ܫܘܠܛܢܝܐ ܫܘܬܦܝܐ ܫܠܘܝܐ ܫܢܬܢܝܐ ܫܩܝܦܝܐ ܫܬܢܝܐ ܬܕܐܢܝܐ ܬܢܢܝܐ ܬܪܥܝܬܢܝܐ ܬܫܝܬܢܝܐ ܬܫܪܝܢܝܐ

List 7: as yet only attested in translations, almost all from Greek.

Many, however, are quite likely to turn up in due course in hitherto unpublished Syriac authors from this period; others are attested from later Syriac authors.

(a) 5th cent.

ܡܪܝܕܝܐ ܥܘܡܩܝܐ

(b) 6th cent.

ܐܕܫܝܐ ܐܚܝܐ ܐܚܢܝܐ ܐܚܝܢܝܐ ܐܝܼܠܢܝܐ ܐܟܘܠܝܐ ؟ܐܪܢܒܝܐ ܐܬܝܪܝܐ ܐܬܠܝܛܝܐ ܓܕܫܢܝܐ ܓܘܓܝܐ ܓܦܢܝܐ ܕܡܥܢܝܐ ܙܒܝܢܝܐ ܙܒܢܝܐ ܙܪܝܒܝܐ ܚܓܓܝܐ ܛܘܒܢܝܐ ܛܠܝܘܣܝܐ ܝܕܥܬܢܝܐ ܟܐܦܝܐ ܟܢܫܝܐ ܟܪܘܟܝܐ ܟܬܝܒܝܐ ܠܗܓܝܐ ܡܘܣܘܩܪܝܐ ܡܫܝܢܝܐ ܢܫܝܐ ܣܘܟܢܝܐ ܣܘܦܣܛܝܐ ܥܐܕܢܝܐ ܥܡܠܝܐ ܥܪܘܩܝܐ ܩܛܘܠܝܐ ܩܪܒܬܢܝܐ ܪܘܫܡܢܝܐ ܬܐܛܪܝܐ ܬܒܢܝܐ ܬܟܫܦܝܐ ܬܠܓܢܝܐ

(c) 7th cent.

ܐܕܡܢܛܝܐ ܐܕܫܢܝܐ ܐܘܠܨܢܝܐ ܐܣܘܛܝܐ ܐܣܛܘܟܣܢܝܐ ܐܣܝܝܐ ܐܪܚܝܐ ܒܒܘܣܝܐ ܒܛܝܢܝܐ ܒܠܚܘܕܢܝܐ ܒܣܡܝܐ ܒܥܠܕܒܒܝܐ ܓܘܡܕܢܝܐ ܓܢܣܝܐ ܓܪܡܦܝܠܝܐ ܕܒܚܢܝܐ ܕܘܓܡܛܝܩܝܐ ܕܝܪܝܐ ܕܡܘܣܝܐ ܗܘܢܝܐ ܙܢܝܝܐ ܙܪܥܝܐ ܚܓܢܝܐ ܚܝܘܬ ܫܢܝܐ ܚܪܝܢܝܐ ܚܫܚܬܢܝܐ ܛܰܘܪܢܝܐ ܛܝܦܝܐ ܝܘܩܢܬܢܝܐ ܝܘܬܪܢܝܐ ܝܡܝܐ ܟܘܟܒܢܝܐ ܟܘܪܗܢܝܐ ܟܟܪܢܝܐ ܠܒܢܢܝܐ ܠܣܛܝܝܐ ܡܘܣܝܩܝܐ ܡܠܘܣܝܐ ܡܥܠܬܢܝܐ ܡܩܪܒܢܝܐ ܡܪܚܩܢܝܐ ܡܫܟܢܝܐ ܡܫܡܫܢܝܐ ܡܠܬܝܐ ܡܠܬܢܝܐ ܢܘܪܝܐ ܢܘܫܩܬܢܝܐ ܣܒܝܐ ܣܒܬܝܐ ܣܗܪܢܝܐ ܣܘܢܩܢܝܐ ܣܘܦܣܛܝܩܝܐ ܣܡܠܝܐ ܣܡܩܪܝܐ ܣܥܘܪܝܐ ܥܒܕܢܝܐ ܥܝܘܩܬܢܝܐ ܥܡܛܢܝܐ ܥܡܡܝܐ ܥܢܦܝܐ ܦܕܓܘܓܝܐ ܦܘܠܝܛܝܩܝܐ ܦܚܪܝܐ ܦܠܚܝܐ ܦܩܥܬܝܐ ܨܚܘܢܝܐ ܨܝܕܝܐ ܩܒܥܝܐ ܩܘܡܝܕܝܐ ܩܘܡܝܩܝܐ ܩܘܪܒܢܝܐ ܩܛܝܪܢܝܐ ܩܠܢܝܐ ܩܢܬܠܝܐ ܩܦܝܠܝܐ ܩܪܒܝܐ ܩܪܩܘܪܝܐ ܪܓܠܢܝܐ ܪܘܓܙܢܝܐ ܪܚܝܝܐ ܪܚܡܝܐ ܪܝܫܓܘܢܝܝܐ ܪܝܫ ܟܗܢܝܐ ܪܡܟܝܐ ܫܒܪܢܝܐ ܫܘܥܝܬܢܝܐ ܫܝܢܝܐ ܫܝܫܠܢܝܐ ܫܥܝܢܝܐ ܫܥܢܝܐ ܫܦܪܝܐ ܫܪܒܬܢܝܐ

List 8: adjectives based on biblical names.

(a) 5th century


(b) 5th/6th century

ܐܗܪܘܢܝܐ ܐܘܪܫܠܡܝܐ

(c) 6th/7th century

ܐܝܙܒܠܝܐ ܐܝܙܪܥܠܝܐ ܝܫܘܥܝܐ

(d) 7th century

ܐܒܪܗܡܝܐ ܐܝܪܝܚܘܢܝܐ

(e) 7th/8th century


Some preliminary observations

The ever increasing number of newly attested forms in each of the periods is striking: period V/VI in particular marks a turning point in the rate of increase which culminates in the periods VI/VII and VII. This is certainly not just due to the number of surviving texts available for the different periods, although this is a factor that always needs to be taken into consideration. The turn of the fifth/sixth century also happens to be the turning point in the history of translation practice,20 at least as far as authoritative texts are concerned, for it marks the fundamental shift from a reader- to a text-oriented approach to translation. One of the consequences of this will be a desire to reflect the grammatical categories of the Greek originals more closely, thus creating a need for new Syriac adjectival forms to correspond to the higher frequency of the presence of adjectives in Greek writings. Evidence of experimentation by translators can be seen from a small number of forms which never caught on, such as nuraya (in contrast to nuranaya).

A surprising feature which emerges from these Tables is the large number of new forms to be found in East Syriac authors of the VI/VII and VII periods, only a few of which are also (so far) attested in earlier translations from Greek. A noticeable presence amongst these new adjectives are forms in –tanaya; earlier forms are all extensions of feminine nouns, such as ‘idta > ‘idtanaya, but in the last two periods, not only are new examples attested, but an extension is made by analogy to include other suffixed forms in –tana, the most notable case being (ṭubana>) ṭubtana > ṭubtanaya.

One further notable feature is worth observing, namely the extension of forms in –aya to include biblical names and places: the earliest to be attested is adamaya, found quite a number of times in Narsai, but the extension to other names only comes with the sixth century and later. Similarly, adjectives which take their origin in biblical passages are first attested in the seventh century (see under ḥalanaya, ‘built on sand’, cf. Matt. 7:26), while their growth in frequency belongs to the eighth century onwards.

As mentioned at the outset, the prime reason for providing the present repertory was to provide a reasonably firm chronological framework for the expansion of these adjectival forms, certain ones of which can usefully serve as one of several different criteria available for dating works which are either undated or of uncertain authenticity. A few instances of cases where this criterion could be helpfully applied were given in the earlier article, ‘A criterion for dating undated Syriac texts’, the most dramatic of which was the tell-tale presence of five adjectival forms in –aya21 in one of Narsai’s liturgical memre (ed, Mingana, no. 17), none of which are to be found in any other memre by Narsai, and all of which are subsequent innovations. It would not be difficult to apply this criterion to other texts with informative results, but this must await another occasion – and for others to apply it. Looked at from a much wider perspective, the evidence presented here also serves as an illustration of one of the ways in which Syriac literary culture became more and more Hellenized over the course of the fourth to early eighth century.22

Works cited

  • I.E. Barsaum, Sriṭotho d-dayro d-kurkmo/Deyrul-Zafaran Manuscripts, II (Damascus, 2008).
  • S. P. Brock, A. M. Butts, G. A. Kiraz and L. van Rompay (eds), The Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage (Piscataway NJ, 2011).
  • S.P. Brock, “Towards a history of Syriac translation technique’, in R. Lavenant (ed.), III Symposium Syriacum (OCA 221; Rome, 1983), 1-14.
  • - , “Diachronic aspects of Syriac word formation: an aid for dating anonymous texts”, in R. Lavenant (ed.), V Symposium Syriacum (OCA 236; Rome, 1990), 321-30.
  • - , “Some diachronic features of Classical Syriac”, in M.F.J. Baasten and W. Th. van Peursen (eds), Hamlet on a Hill. Semitic and Greek Studies presented to Professor T. Muraoka (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 118; 2003), 95-111.
  • - , “Secondary formations from Greek loanwords in Syriac”, in H. Juusola, J. Laulainen and H. Palva (eds), Verbum et Calamus. Semitic and Related Studies in Honour of Professor Tapani Harviainen (Studia Orientalia 99; Helsinki, 2004), 31-39.
  • -, “A criterion for dating undated Syriac texts: the evidence from adjectival forms in –aya”, Parole de l’Orient 35 (2010), 111-24.
  • - , “Charting the Hellenization of a literary culture: the case of Syriac”, Intellectual History of the Islamicate World 3 (2015), 98-124.
  • A.M. Butts, K. S. Heal and S. P. Brock, Clavis to the Metrical Homilies of Narsai (CSCO Subsidia 142; Leuven, 2020).
  • A.M. Butts, Language Change in the Wake of Empire. Syriac in its Greco-Roman Context (Winona Lake, 2016).
  • - , “The use of Syriac derivational suffixes with Greek loanwords”, Orientalia 83 (2014), 206-37.
  • A. de Halleux, “Le symbole des évêques perses au synode de Séleucie-Ctésiphon (410)”, in G.Wiessner (ed.), Erkenntnisse und Meinungen, II (Göttinger Orientforschungen, Reihe Syriaca 17; 1978), 161-90.
  • - , “La philoxénienne du symbole”, in Symposium Syriacum 1976 (Orientalia Christiana Analecta 205; 1978), 295-315. .
  • J. Gribomont, “Le symbole de foi de Séleucie-Ctésiphon”, in R.H. Fischer, A Tribute to Arthur Vööbus (Chicago, 1977), 283-94.
  • H. Hugonnard-Roche, “Questions de logique au VIIe siècle: Les Épitres de Sévère Sebokht et leurs sources grecques”, Studia Graeco-Arabica 5 (2015), 53-104.
  • D. King, The Syriac Versions of the Writings of Cyril of Alexandria. A Study in Translation Technique (CSCO Subsidia 123; Leuven, 2008). .
  • L. van Rompay, “Some preliminary remarks on the origin of Classical Syriac as a standard language: the Syriac version of Eusebius of Caesarea’s Ecclesiastical History”, in G. Goldenberg and S. Raz (eds), Semitic and Cushitic Studies (Wiesbaden, 1994), 70-89. .


‎1  S.P. Brock, “Diachronic aspects of Syriac word formation: an aid for dating anonymous texts”, in R. Lavenant (ed.), V Symposium Syriacum (OCA 236; Rome, 1990), 321-30, and “A criterion for dating undated Syriac texts: the evidence from adjectival forms in –aya”, Parole de l’Orient 35 (2010), 111-24.

‎2  Study of the suffix forms –ana etc. was taken further in connection with Greek loanwords in Brock, “Secondary formations from Greek loanwords in Syriac”, in H. Juusola, J. Laulainen and H. Palva (eds), Verbum et Calamus. Semitic and Related Studies in Honour of Professor Tapani Harviainen (Studia Orientalia 99; Helsinki, 2004), 31-39, and A.M. Butts. “The use of Syriac derivational suffixes with Greek loanwords”, Orientalia 83 (2014), 206-37.

‎3  See, for example, L. van Rompay, “Some preliminary remarks on the origin of Classical Syriac as a standard language: the Syriac version of Eusebius of Caesarea’s Ecclesiastical History”, in G. Goldenberg and S. Raz (eds), Semitic and Cushitic Studies (Wiesbaden, 1994), 70-89, and Brock, “Some diachronic features of Classical Syriac”, in M.F.J. Baasten and W. Th. van Peursen (eds), Hamlet on a Hill. Semitic and Greek Studies presented to Professor T. Muraoka (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 118; 2003), 95-111. The growth in the number and use of Greek loanwords is likewise an important indicator of diachronic developments: see especially A.M. Butts, Language Change in the Wake of Empire. Syriac in its Greco-Roman Context (Winona Lake, 2016).

‎4  I had intended to include evidence from this manuscript, but the closure of the British Library due to the pandemic has prevented this.

‎5  See especially J. Gribomont, “Le symbole de foi de Séleucie-Ctésiphon”, in R.H. Fischer, A Tribute to Arthur Vööbus (Chicago, 1977), 283-94 and A. de Halleux, A. de Halleux, “Le symbole des évêques perses au synode de Séleucie-Ctésiphon (410”), in G. Wiessner (ed.), Erkenntnisse und Meinungen, II (Göttinger Orientforschungen, Reihe Syriaca 17; 1978), 161-90, and “La philoxénienne du symbole”, in Symposium Syriacum 1976 (Orientalia Christiana Analecta 205; 1978), 295-315. For this as a criterion in dating the various translations of Cyril’s Letters, D. King, The Syriac Versions of the Writings of Cyril of Alexandria. A Study in Translation Technique (CSCO Subs. 123; 2008). A few, evidently transitional, terms never caught on: thus e.g. ܐܬܦܓܪܢ.

‎6  Jan AG 928 = AD 617 is the date given in the Milan Syrohexapla for the translation of the XII Prophets (f.114r) and Daniel (f.151v).

‎7  The date, Jan AG 956 = AD 645, is given in Vat. Syr. 158, f.16.

‎8  The evident date seems to be provided by a note in a shmahe (‘masoretic’) manuscript described by Patriarch Ignatius Ephrem Barsaum, Sriṭotho d-dayro d-kurkmo/Deyrul-Zafaran Manuscripts, II (Damascus, 2008), 83.

‎9  Fuller bibliographical details can readily be found in the Gorgias Encyclopedia of the Syriac Heritage (2011). Besides the texts listed here, a few further ones have been cited from periodical publications, for which the basic references are given in the the course of the Inventory. An asterisk (*) denotes Syriac pagination.

‎10  A critical edition by D.G.K. Taylor is in preparation; hence I cite by Psalm, rather than page, number.

‎11  I am most grateful to Jack Tannous for the text of his edition of George’s Letters, in preparation.

‎12  If both versions (S1 and S2) survive two page numbers are given, the lower representing S1 and the higher S2; for many Discourses only S2 is preserved.

‎13  It is uncertain whether or not this is the translation by Candidatus, made in 665.

‎14  For correspondences between the various editions see A.M. Butts, K.S. Heal and S.P. Brock, Clavis to the Metrical Homilies of Narsai (CSCO Subs 142; 2020), and, earlier, Hugoye 12:1 (2010), 21-40.

‎15  That to Yonan (ff. 5v-11r) is edited by H. Hugonnard-Roche, Studia Graeco-Arabica 5 (2015), 53-104.

‎16  At Ephr cHaer 11:11, where Beck’s edition has ܒܥܝܪ̈ܝܐ , the metre indicates that the original reading was ܒܥܪ̈ܝܪܝܐ , which has been preserved in his manuscript A.

‎17  But IV as a noun, ‘layman’ much earlier (e.g. Ephr CDiat XIII.18).

‎18  From Ephrem (e.g. Nat 24:19) onwards this form regularly describes the Shem‘on of Luke 7, and does not have the sense of ‘Pharisaic’, as in Sahdona.

‎19  See Introduction.

‎20  See, e.g. Brock, ‘Towards a history of Syriac translation technique’, in R. Lavenant (ed.), III Symposium Syriacum (OCA 221; 1983), 1-14, here 11.

‎21  dilaya, isho‘aya, kahanaya, maranaya and ‘idtanaya.

‎22  Cf. Brock, “Charting the Hellenization of a literary culture: the case of Syriac”, Intellectual History of the Islamicate World 3 (2015), 113-5.


Syriac Lexeme

Record ID:
Status: Published  
Publication Date: February 12, 2021
Sebastian Brock, "The Chronological Development of Adjectives in –aya up to 725." Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies 24.1 (2021): 53-125.
open access peer reviewed